acute tubular necrosis

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Related to acute tubular necrosis: Acute interstitial nephritis


 [nĕ-kro´sis, ne-kro´sis] (Gr.)
the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by enzymatic degradation.
aseptic necrosis necrosis without infection or inflammation.
acute tubular necrosis acute renal failure with mild to severe damage or necrosis of tubule cells, usually secondary to either nephrotoxicity, ischemia after major surgery, trauma (see crush syndrome), severe hypovolemia, sepsis, or burns. See also lower nephron nephrosis.
Balser's fatty necrosis gangrenous pancreatitis with omental bursitis and disseminated patches of necrosis of fatty tissues.
bridging necrosis septa of confluent necrosis bridging adjacent central veins of hepatic lobules and portal triads characteristic of subacute hepatic necrosis.
caseous necrosis caseation (def. 2).
central necrosis necrosis affecting the central portion of an affected bone, cell, or lobule of the liver.
cheesy necrosis caseation (def. 2).
coagulation necrosis death of cells, the protoplasm of the cells becoming fixed and opaque by coagulation of the protein elements, the cellular outline persisting for a long time.
colliquative necrosis liquefactive necrosis.
fat necrosis necrosis in which fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, usually occurring in subcutaneous tissue as a result of trauma.
liquefactive necrosis necrosis in which the necrotic material becomes softened and liquefied.
massive hepatic necrosis massive, usually fatal, necrosis of the liver, a rare complication of viral hepatitis (fulminant hepatitis) that may also result from exposure to hepatotoxins or from drug hypersensitivity.
moist necrosis necrosis in which the dead tissue is wet and soft.
postpartum pituitary necrosis see postpartum pituitary necrosis.
selective myocardial cell necrosis myofibrillar degeneration.
subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn a benign, self-limited disease affecting term newborns and young infants, characterized by circumscribed, indurated, nodular areas of fat necrosis. It is thought to be related to trauma on bony prominences during delivery, hypothermia, asphyxia, or maternal diabetes; it usually resolves spontaneously by 2 to 4 weeks with no scarring. Called also adiponecrosis neonatorum or subcutanea.
Zenker's necrosis hyaline degeneration and necrosis of striated muscle; called also Zenker's degeneration.

acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

acute renal failure with mild to severe damage or necrosis of tubule cells, usually resulting from nephrotoxicity, ischemia after major surgery, trauma (crush syndrome), severe hypovolemia, sepsis, or burns. See also renal failure.

Acute Tubular Necrosis

A condition characterised by acute renal failure with oliguria, which returns to normal in days to weeks, with the caveat that 50% of patients die.
Aetiology Ischaemia—medical, obstetric, surgical, including transplantation (cold ischaemia); toxicity—drugs (aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cyclosporine), chemicals (radiocontrast), pigments (myoglobin—crush syndrome, haemoglobinuria), sepsis, shock. Predisposing conditions Diabetes, liver disease, immunosuppression by toxic agents.
Management It is managed in transplanted kidneys in an expectant fashion as renal function may resume spontaneously in 2 to 4 weeks.

acute tubular necrosis

Nephrology A pathologic change of acute renal failure due to shock, crush injuries, hemoglobinuria, toxic nephrosis, sepsis, drugs-aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, cyclosporine, radiocontrast, ischemia in transplanted kidneys Predisposing conditions DM, liver disease; ATN in transplanted kidneys is managed in an expectant fashion as renal function may resume spontaneously in 2-4 wks

acute tubular necrosis

A severe kidney disorder featuring patchy damage to the fluid-reabsorbing tubules. Many of the lining cells of the tubules are destroyed and many of the tubules blocked. The condition may be due to inadequate blood supply or to various toxic effects including those of certain drugs such as the aminoglycoside antibiotics. There is a rapid decline in kidney function and patients usually require to be maintained on dialysis while recovery is taking place.
References in periodicals archive ?
The clinical symptoms observed in this case, which were consistent with previous reports of cadmium toxicity, manifested primarily as hemolytic anemia and acute tubular necrosis.
In the Brazilian paper by Mauad et al, all 21 patients were found to have renal acute tubular necrosis with four demonstrating renal deposition of myoglobin pigment.
Acute Tubular Necrosis in Statin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis
Intrarenal acute renal failure: The most common cause is acute tubular necrosis (ATN) due to ischemic or toxic insults.
Adequate perfusion of the newly transplanted kidney is a priority to assure postoperative diuresis and avoid acute tubular necrosis.
Acute tubular necrosis accounts for most cases of acute renal failure, so efforts to prevent this condition have been paramount.
Renal damage may include acute tubular necrosis and excessive protein, casts, and red blood cells in the urine.
carinatus venom causes hemorrhages in the kidneys and mild acute tubular necrosis in 20% of the glomeruli within 24 hrs of envenomation.
Chronic alcoholism has been shown to cause acute tubular necrosis and dysfunction (De Marchi et al.
Autopsy specimens showed massive liver necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and acute tubular necrosis (Figure).
However, hematuria in the patient could have been due to severe thrombocytopenia or malaria-induced renal ischemia and acute tubular necrosis.

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