acute phase response

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any action or change of condition evoked by a stimulus.
acute phase response a group of physiologic processes occurring soon after the onset of infection, trauma, inflammatory processes, and some malignant conditions. The most prominent change is a dramatic increase of acute phase proteins in the serum, especially C-reactive protein. Also seen are fever, increased vascular permeability, and a variety of metabolic and pathologic changes.
anamnestic response the rapid reappearance of antibody in the blood following introduction of an antigen to which the subject had previously developed a primary immune response.
auditory brainstem response ABR; a special hearing test that tracks the nerve signals arising in the inner ear as they travel along the auditory nerve to the brain region responsible for hearing. A small speaker placed near the ear makes a clicking sound, and special electrodes record the nerve signal as it travels. The test can determine where along the nerve there is a lesion responsible for sensorineural hearing loss. It is often used for individuals with such loss in just one ear; this is often caused by a benign tumor along the auditory nerve, but if the ABR reading is normal in a given region, the chances of there being a tumor there are small. This test can also be used on infants since it requires no conscious response from the person being tested.
autoimmune response the immune response in which antibodies or immune lymphoid cells are produced against the body's own tissues. See also autoimmune disease.
conditioned response see conditioned response.
dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response a nursing diagnosis adopted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as inability of a patient to adjust to lowered levels of mechanical ventilator support, which interrupts and prolongs the process of weaning. See also mechanical ventilatory weaning.
galvanic skin response the alteration in the electrical resistance of the skin associated with sympathetic nerve discharge.
immune response see immune response.
inflammatory response the various changes that tissue undergoes when it becomes inflamed; see inflammation.
post-trauma response former name for the nursing diagnosis post-trauma syndrome.
reticulocyte response increase in the formation of reticulocytes in response to a bone marrow stimulus.
triple response (of Lewis) a physiologic reaction of the skin to stroking with a blunt instrument: first a red line develops at the site of stroking, owing to the release of histamine or a histamine-like substance, then a flare develops around the red line, and lastly a wheal is formed as a result of local edema.
unconditioned response an unlearned response, i.e., one that occurs naturally, in contrast to a conditioned response.

a·cute phase re·ac·tion

to the changes in synthesis of certain proteins within the serum during an inflammatory response; this response provides rapid protection for the host against microorganisms through nonspecific defense mechanisms.

Acute Phase Response

A constellation of nonspecific host responses to cytokines* released in response to tissue injury, infection, inflammation and rarely malignancy—e.g., Hodgkin lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma—which causes functional liver changes—increased synthesis of acute phase proteins (endocrine system), abnormal glucose tolerance, increased gluconeogenesis, thyroid dysfunction, altered lipid metabolism (immune system), left shift leukocytosis, hypergammaglobulinaemia (metabolic system), decreased albumin synthesis, energy consumption, increased ceruloplasmin, reduced iron and zinc levels, and CNS (lethargy); the most measured molecule in the response is the highly nonspecific CRP, which may increase 10- to 1000-fold within hours from a normal level of 100 µg/L.
*Biological response modifiers—e.g., IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta-1, and interferons; intercellular communication is mediated by either direct cell-to-cell contact, or by soluble signalling molecules including hormones, eicosanoids, neurotransmitters, and to cytokines, which may play the most central role in inducing the APR; other molecules involved in the APR include corticosteroids, insulin, thrombin, histamine, and others; screening tests for the APR include erythrocyte sedimentation rate, plasma viscosity, and zeta sedimentation ratio.

acute phase response

A constellation of nonspecific host responses to cytokines released in response to tissue injury, infection, inflammation and rarely malignancy–eg, Hodgkin's disease, renal cell CA, and causes functional liver changes–↑ synthesis of acute phase proteins, endocrine system–abnormal glucose tolerance, ↑ gluconeogenesis, thyroid dysfunction, altered lipid metabolism, immune system–left shift leukocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, metabolic system–↓ albumin synthesis, energy consumption, ↑ ceruloplasmin, ↓ iron and zinc levels, and CNS–lethargy; the most measured molecule in the response is the highly nonspecific CRP, which may ↑ 10- to 1000-fold within hrs from a normal of 100 µg/L

a·cute phase re·ac·tion

(ă-kyūt' fāz rē-ak'shŭn)
Refers to the changes in synthesis on certain proteins within the serum during an inflammatory response; this response provides rapid protection for the host against microorganisms via nonspecific defense mechanisms.
Synonym(s): acute phase response.


1. brief.
2. common usage is 'having severe signs and a short course of 12 to 24 hours'. See also under organ (e.g. pancreatitis), system (e.g. respiratory), causative agent (e.g. arsenic) or lesion (e.g. myonecrosis).

acute bovine pulmonary emphysema-edema
acute care
see secondary health care.
acute death syndrome of chickens
sudden death, for no apparent reason, in 2 to 3 week old broiler chicks; clinical signs of falling, wing flapping and convulsions may occur for about a minute before death.
acute phase response
the rapid change in composition of certain plasma proteins, largely due to alteration in hepatic synthesis, in response to infection or inflammation. Although the purpose is not well understood, these changes are believed to assist in immune response. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a laboratory indicator of the acute phase response. See also c-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor.
acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
see acute respiratory distress syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an index of the acute phase response that reflects mainly the concentrations of fibrinogen and [alpha]-globulins.
It has emerged from studies in which individuals known to have diseases capable of inducing an acute phase response have been excluded, and it is observed even at very modestly increased CRP values.
Because these conditions are accompanied by variable degrees of inflammatory response, the low plasma selenium concentration may be caused, in part, by an appropriate acute phase response.
8), it is likely that subjects with CRP values persistently >3 mg/L are mounting a substantial acute phase response to some underlying pathological process.
The relationship between serum levels of lipoprotein(a) and proteins associated with the acute phase response.
Effects of extradural anaesthesia on interleukin-6 and acute phase response to surgery.

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