acute myeloid leukaemia


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Related to acute myeloid leukaemia: Chronic myeloid leukaemia, Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

acute myeloid leukaemia

A rapidly progressing form of leukaemia characterised by the proliferation of immature WBCs (blasts in peripheral circulation).
 
Epidemiology
Primarily in adults or infants under age 1; 2,000 new cases are diagnosed/year, UK.
 
Clinical findings
Fatigue, weight-loss, fever, weakness, pallor, bone and joint pain, bleeding gums, nosebleeds, bruising, lymphadenopathy.
 
Complications
Bleeding, increased infections.
 
Management
Chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.

FAB classification, acute leukaemias
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 
M0—Myeloblasts with minimal differentiation.
M1—Myeloblasts without maturation.
M2—Myeloblasts with maturation (best AML prognosis).
M3—Hypergranular promyelocytic leukaemia (faggot cells).
M3V—Variant, microgranular promyelocytic leukaemia.
M4—Myelomonocytic leukocytes.
M5—Monocytic, subtype: 
  a. Poorly differentiated monocytic leukaemia. 
  b. Well-differentiated monocytic leukaemia.
M6—Erythroleukaemia/DiGuglielmo syndrome.
M7—Megakaryocytic leukaemia—pleomorphic undifferentiated cells with cytoplasmic blebs; myelofibrosis or increased marrow reticulin; positive for platelet peroxidase antifactor VIII. 

WHO classification
AML with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities.
AML with multi-lineage dysplasia (as a precursor to myelodysplastic syndrome).
AML related to therapy.
AML NOS.

AML variants
AML with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities.
AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22).
AML with inv(16)(p13q22).
AML with t(15;17)(q22;q12).
AML with 11q23 (MLL) abnormalities.
AML with multilineage dysplasia.
AML (and MDS), therapy-related:
• Alkylating agent related;
• Topoisomerase-II inhibitor related.
AML, not otherwise categorised.

acute myeloid leukaemia

A form of LEUKAEMIA in which the cells present in abnormal numbers are derived from primitive precursors, in the bone marrow, of the white blood cells. The median age of presentation is 70. Genetic defects and age-related factors are thought to be the principal determinants of lack of success of chemotherapy in elderly patients.
References in periodicals archive ?
Conclusion: Acute myeloid leukaemia was found to be a highly variable disease that presented with non-specific signs and symptoms.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is also known as acute non lymphocytic leukaemia or as acute myelogenous leukaemia.
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Phase 3 Clinical Trial Pipeline Insights
Long-Term Prognosis of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia According to the New Genetic Risk Classification of the European Leukaemia Net Recommendations: Evaluation of the Proposed Reporting System.
DNA repair contributes to the drug-resistant phenotype of primary acute myeloid leukaemia cells with FLT3 internal tandem duplications and is reversed by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412.
Describing how the most common gene mutation found in acute myeloid leukaemia starts the process of cancer development, they suggested that three critical steps are required to transform normal blood cells into leukaemic ones, each subverting a different cellular process.
Celgene, a United States-based biotechnology company, has received priority review from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its new drug application seeking approval of enasidenib intended to treat patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia with isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutation, it was reported yesterday.
Reflecting a greater understanding of disease biology, the enthusiastic pursuit of Flt-3 inhibition in the development of novel acute myeloid leukaemia treatment has resulted in already crowded pipeline, with four products challenging for first-to-market status: Cephalons CEP-701, Novartis PKC-412, Millenniums MLN518 and Pfizers SU11248.
The trial is aimed at assessing the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GMI-1271 when used in combination with chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukaemia patients.
Nasdaq:BIVN) today announced that the Scientific Program Committee of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has selected Bioenvision's Evoltra(TM) (clofarabine) adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) data for oral presentation at its 2006 ASCO Annual Meeting.
The product is a new and proprietary E-selectin antagonist in the company's pipeline to treat patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.
Stefan Faderl, presented data at the meeting in which clofarabine was used as first-line treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in adults.

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