acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

(redirected from acute lymphoid leukaemia)

acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

A malignant lymphoproliferative process, which commonly affects children and young adults, affecting ± 1800/year (US); ± 650/year (UK).

Aetiology
ALL has a hereditary component; it is 20-fold increased in patients with Down syndrome; it is linked to benzene exposure, radiation therapy in ankylosing spondylitis.
 
Clinical findings
Abrupt onset, often ± 3-month history of fatigue, fever, haemorrhage from multiple sites, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly.
 
Molecular pathology
Most are B cells and express CD19; 60% have karyotypic abnormalities; the most common cytogenetic abnormality is the cryptic t(12;21) translocation, resulting in TEL-AML fusion (25% of cases), followed by the t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) translocation, seen in 5% of cases.
 
Prognosis
90–95% achieve remission; improved cure rate is attributed to prophylaxis for meningeal leukaemia and more intense systemic chemotherapy. The current survival ranges from 20% to 75%.

FAB classification, acute leukaemias
Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL)
L1—Small monotonous lymphocytes.
L2—Mixed L1- and L3-type lymphocytes.
L3—Large homogeneous blast cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
The charges related to the treatment of a 14-year-old girl, who was suffering from acute lymphoid leukaemia, and her parents during a month-long period at Ty Hafan, Sully, in March and April 2008.
The team, led by Dr Veronika Sexl from the University of Vienna, conducted their research on acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) and chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), which can both be caused by fusion protein, Bcr-Abl, created through the joining of two or more genes originally coded for separate proteins.
An employee of Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust, Mrs Gallagher said she was responsible for all care provided to Child S, who suffered from acute lymphoid leukaemia.

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