acute lymphocytic leukemia


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Related to acute lymphocytic leukemia: acute myeloid leukemia

leukemia

 [loo-ke´me-ah]
a progressive, malignant neoplasm of the blood-forming organs, marked by diffuse replacement of the bone marrow development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. It is accompanied by a reduced number of erythrocytes and blood platelets, resulting in anemia and increased susceptibility to infection and hemorrhage. Other typical symptoms include fever, pain in the joints and bones, and swelling of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. adj., adj leuke´mic.
Types of Leukemia. Leukemia is classified clinically in several ways: (1) acute versus chronic, terms that have become altered from their usual meanings and refer to the degree of cell differentiation; (2) the predominant proliferating cells: myelocytic, granulocytic, or lymphocytic; and (3) increase in or maintenance of the number of abnormal cells in the blood—preleukemic.

Acute leukemia is characterized by fatigue, headache, sore throat, and dyspnea, followed by symptoms of acute tonsillitis, stomatitis, bleeding from the mucous membranes of the mouth, alimentary canal, and rectum, and pain in the bones and joints. There eventually is enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. Common to all leukemias are the tendency to bleed and the resultant anemia and increased susceptibility to infection. The diagnosis of leukemia requires confirmation of leukemic cells in the bone marrow by bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. Abnormalities may also be seen in peripheral blood smears.
Treatment. The treatment of choice is systemic combination chemotherapy with a variety of antineoplastic drug regimens. The disease can also be treated by a bone marrow transplant after a remission is achieved with chemotherapy.
Patient Care. Leukemia affects almost every system within the body and can present a variety of patient care problems. Of primary concern are those symptoms attendant to suppression of normal bone marrow function, particularly susceptibility to infection due to the predominance of immature and abnormally functioning white blood cells, bleeding tendency owing to decreased platelet count, and anemia due to decreased erythrocyte count. Chronic abnormal tissue perfusion, increased need for rest, and decreased sensitivity to heat and cold require careful planning and intervention. Additionally, the patient will need relief from pain and discomfort arising from enlargement of the lymph nodes and distention of the liver and spleen.

Because of the malignant nature of leukemia and the fear and anxiety created by the knowledge that one has a form of cancer, patients and their families and significant others will need help in coping with anxiety, mental depression, and realistic fears about dying and death. The financial burden of the illness and disruption of the life of the individual and the family also impose a special burden on them. Referral to appropriate persons and agencies that can help meet their needs is an essential part of the holistic care of the patient with leukemia.
acute leukemia leukemia in which the involved cell line shows little or no differentiation, usually consisting of blast cells; two types are distinguished, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia.
acute granulocytic leukemia acute myelogenous leukemia.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (acute lymphocytic leukemia) acute leukemia of the lymphoblastic type, one of the two major categories of acute leukemia, primarily affecting young children. Symptoms include anemia, fatigue, weight loss, easy bruising, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia with bacterial infections, bone pain, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and sometimes spread to the central nervous system (meningism) or to other organs. There are three major subtypes: The pre–B-cell is the most common, consisting of small uniform lymphoblasts that do not synthesize complete functional immunoglobulins or synthesize heavy chains only. The B-cell type is rare and consists of lymphoblasts that express surface immunoglobulins and have a surface translocation similar to that of Burkitt's lymphoma. The T-cell type has cells that express surface antigens characteristic of T cells.
acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (acute megakaryocytic leukemia) a form of acute myelogenous leukemia in which megakaryocytes are predominant and platelets are increased in the blood, often with fibrosis; it can occur at any age. Called also megakaryoblastic or megakaryocytic leukemia.
acute monocytic leukemia an uncommon form of acute myelogenous leukemia in which the predominating cells are identified as monocytes; a few myelocytes may also be present. It can affect any age group. Called also monocytic leukemia.
acute myeloblastic leukemia
1. a common kind of acute myelogenous leukemia, in which myeloblasts predominate; it usually occurs in infants and middle-aged to older adults. Two types are distinguished; those that have minimal cell differentiation or maturation and those that have more advanced differentiation. Called also myeloblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.
acute myelocytic leukemia acute myelogenous leukemia.
acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) acute leukemia of the myelogenous type, one of the two major categories of acute leukemia; most types affect primarily middle-aged to elderly people. Symptoms include anemia, fatigue, weight loss, easy bruising, thrombocytopenia, and granulocytopenia that leads to persistent bacterial infections. Several types are distinguished, named according to the stage in which abnormal proliferation begins: acute undifferentiated l., acute myeloblastic l., acute promyelocytic l., acute myelomonocytic l., acute monocytic l., acute erythroleukemia, and acute megakaryocytic l. Called also acute myelocytic l. and acute nonlymphocytic l.
acute myeloid leukemia
acute myelomonocytic leukemia one of the more common types of acute myelogenous leukemia, characterized by both malignant monocytes and myeloblasts; it usually affects middle aged to older adults. See also chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Called also myelomonocytic or Naegeli's leukemia.
acute nonlymphocytic leukemia acute myelogenous leukemia.
acute promyelocytic leukemia acute myelogenous leukemia in which more than half the cells are malignant promyelocytes, often associated with abnormal bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and decreased levels of coagulation factor V; it usually occurs in young adults. Called also promyelocytic leukemia.
acute undifferentiated leukemia acute myelogenous leukemia in which the predominating cell is so immature and primitive that it cannot be classified. Called also stem cell leukemia and undifferentiated cell leukemia.
adult T-cell leukemia (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) a form of leukemia with onset in adulthood, leukemic cells with T-cell properties, frequent dermal involvement, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, and a subacute or chronic course; it is associated with human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus.
aleukemic leukemia leukemia in which the leukocyte count is normal or below normal; it may be lymphocytic, monocytic, or myelocytic.
basophilic leukemia a rare type of leukemia in which basophils predominate; both acute and chronic varieties have been observed.
blast cell leukemia acute undifferentiated leukemia.
chronic leukemia leukemia in which the involved cell line is well-differentiated, usually B-lymphocytes, but immunologically incompetent; types distinguished include chronic granulocytic, chronic lymphocytic, chronic myelomonocytic, eosinophilic, and hairy cell leukemia.
chronic granulocytic leukemia chronic leukemia of the myelogenous type, occurring mainly between the age of 25 and 60, usually associated with a unique chromosomal abnormality. The major clinical manifestations of malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and leukocytosis are related to abnormal, excessive, unrestrained overgrowth of granulocytes in the bone marrow. Called also chronic myelocytic or chronic myeloid leukemia.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia chronic leukemia of the lymphoblastic type, a common form mainly seen in the elderly; symptoms include lymphadenopathy, fatigue, renal involvement, and pulmonary leukemic infiltrates. Circulating malignant cells are usually differentiated B-lymphocytes; a minority of cases have mixed T and B lymphocytes or entirely T-lymphocytes.
chronic myelocytic leukemia (chronic myelogenous leukemia,) (chronic myeloid leukemia) chronic granulocytic leukemia.
chronic myelomonocytic leukemia a slowly progressing form of chronic leukemia that usually affects the elderly and sometimes progresses to acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Symptoms include splenomegaly, monocytosis with granulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia.
leukemia cu´tis leukemia with leukocytic invasion of the skin marked by pink, reddish brown, or purple macules, papules, and tumors.
eosinophilic leukemia a form of leukemia in which the eosinophil is the predominating cell. Although resembling chronic granulocytic leukemia in many ways, this form may follow an acute course despite the absence of predominantly blast forms in the peripheral blood.
granulocytic leukemia myelogenous leukemia.
hairy cell leukemia a form of chronic leukemia marked by splenomegaly and by an abundance of abnormal large mononuclear cells covered by hairlike villi (hairy cells) in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and peripheral blood. Called also leukemic reticuloendotheliosis.
leukopenic leukemia aleukemic leukemia.
lymphatic leukemia (lymphoblastic leukemia) leukemia associated with hyperplasia and overactivity of the lymphoid tissue; there are increased numbers of circulating malignant lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. See also acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
lymphocytic leukemia (lymphogenous leukemia) (lymphoid leukemia) lymphoblastic leukemia.
lymphosarcoma cell leukemia the B-cell type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
mast cell leukemia a rare type marked by overwhelming numbers of tissue mast cells in the peripheral blood.
megakaryoblastic leukemia acute megakaryocytic leukemia.
micromyeloblastic leukemia a form of myelogenous leukemia in which the immature, nucleoli-containing cells are small and are distinguishable from lymphocytes only by special staining.
monocytic leukemia acute monocytic leukemia.
myelocytic leukemia (myelogenous leukemia) (myeloid granulocytic leukemia) a form arising from myeloid tissue in which polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.
myelomonocytic leukemia (Naegeli's leukemia) acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
plasma cell leukemia (plasmacytic leukemia) a rare type in which the predominating cell in the peripheral blood is the plasma cell; it is often seen in asociation with multiple myeloma.
prolymphocytic leukemia a type of chronic leukemia marked by large numbers of circulating lymphocytes, predominantly prolymphocytes, with massive splenomegaly and occasionally lymphadenopathy; prognosis is often poor.
promyelocytic leukemia acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Rieder cell leukemia a form of acute myelogenous leukemia in which the blood contains the abnormal cells called Rieder's lymphocytes, asynchronously developed lymphocytes that have immature cytoplasm and a lobulated, indented, comparatively more mature nucleus.
subleukemic leukemia aleukemic leukemia.
undifferentiated leukemia acute undifferentiated leukemia.

lym·pho·cyt·ic leu·ke·mi·a

a variety of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation and conspicuous enlargement of lymphoid tissue in various sites (for example, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, lungs), and the occurrence of increased numbers of cells of the lymphocytic series in the circulating blood and in various tissues and organs; in chronic disease, the cells are adult lymphocytes, whereas conspicuous numbers of lymphoblasts are observed in the more acute syndromes.

acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

a hematologic, malignant disease characterized by large numbers of lymphoblasts in the bone marrow, circulating blood, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs. The number of normal blood cells is usually reduced. More than three-fourths of cases in the United States occur in children, with the greatest number diagnosed between 2 and 5 years of age. The risk of the disease is increased for people with Down syndrome and for siblings of leukemia patients. The disease has a sudden onset and rapid progression marked by fever, pallor, anorexia, fatigue, anemia, hemorrhage, bone pain, splenomegaly, and recurrent infection. Blood and bone marrow studies are used for diagnosis and for determination of the type of proliferating lymphocyte, which may be B cells, T cells (which usually respond poorly to therapy), or null cells that lack T or B cell characteristics. Treatment includes intensive combination chemotherapy, therapy for secondary infections and hyperuricemia, and intrathecal methotrexate. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia. See also chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
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Acute lymphocytic leukemia

acute lymphocytic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL A malignant lymphoproliferative process that commonly affects children and young adults affecting ± 1800/yr–US; ± 650/yr–UK Etiology ALL has a hereditary component; it is 20 X ↑ Pts with Down syndrome; it is linked to benzene exposure, RT in ankylosing spondylitis; it is unrelated to exposure to magnetic fields Clinical Abrupt onset, often ± 3 month Hx of fatigue, fever, hemorrhage from multiple sites, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly Prognosis 9% long-term disease-free survival–1962-66; 71%–1984-88–St Jude's Children's Hospital; 90-95% achieve remission; improved cure rate is attributed to prophylaxis for meningeal leukemia and more intense systemic chemotherapy

lym·pho·cyt·ic leu·ke·mi·a

(lim'fō-sit'ik lū-kē'mē-ă)
A variety of the hematologic disorder characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation and conspicuous enlargement of lymphoid tissue in various sites (e.g., lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, lungs) and the occurrence of increased numbers of cells of the lymphocytic series in the blood.
Synonym(s): lymphatic leukemia.
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ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA: Peripheral blood smear

acute lymphocytic leukemia

Abbreviation: ALL
A hematological malignancy marked by the unchecked multiplication of immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, blood, and body tissues. In 2008 the American Cancer Society estimated about 5400 Americans would be diagnosed with ALL. It is rapidly fatal if left untreated. Synonym: acute lymphoblastic l. See: illustration; leukemia

Etiology

Any of a wide range of acquired or congenital chromosomal abnormalities can cause ALL, including lesions that result in the release of excess growth factors from cells and those that cause the loss of cancer-suppressing genes.

Symptoms

Fatigue, lethargy, bleeding, bone and joint pain, and a predisposition to fever and infection are characteristic of ALL and other leukemias.

Diagnosis

The disease is suggested by the presence of abnormalities on the complete blood count or peripheral blood smear and is confirmed by immunophenotyping.

Treatment

In childhood, ALL induction chemotherapy often begins with steroids, vinca alkaloids, and asparaginase. This is followed, after bone marrow recovery, by consolidation chemotherapy with multidrug regimens, including high-dose methotrexate. Maintenance therapies, which may last 2 years or longer, include methotrexate, mercaptopurines, and other cytotoxic agents. Prophylaxis against central nervous system disease is accomplished by intrathecal drug administration. In referral hospitals, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is sometimes used for refractory disease. About 90% of treated children achieve remission. The 5-year survival of children with ALL is about 85%. Adult ALL is much less responsive to therapy; only about a third of adult patients are cured. In both childhood and adult ALL, allopurinol and hydration precede induction chemotherapy to prevent hyperuricemia caused by tumor lysis.

Prognosis

Late complications of therapy are not uncommon.

See also: leukemia

Patient discussion about acute lymphocytic leukemia

Q. What is the best treatment for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? What is the best treatment for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Can you please give me the hospital names and the location where the treatment could be done?

A. Combination chemotherapy. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital has reported a 5-year-survival rate of more than 90 percent for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)- on adults it's a bit lower but still a remarkable success. About the hospital- it depends where you do you live I guess…

More discussions about acute lymphocytic leukemia
References in periodicals archive ?
1 Introduction 2 Executive Summary 3 Market Overview 4 Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Market Dynamics
Subtypes include precursor B acute lymphocytic leukemia, precursor T acute lymphocytic leukemia, Burkitt leukemia, and acute biphenotypic leukemia.
The cure rate for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia is 80 percent, up from the 1960 survival rate of 4 percent.
Gavin Wolfrank, 7 years old, of Los Angeles County was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) at just seven months old.
Table 29: Leukemia Market to 2018, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, FAB Classification, 2012 37
These abstracts include summaries of data from studies in acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
The first Phase 1 study described above is expected to enroll approximately 10 adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) at The MD Anderson Cancer Center.
The study will be conducted in patients with treatment-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) containing the T315I BCR-ABL mutation.
However, while CML and CLL therapies are predicted to drive the leukemia market, the treatable-pool of chronic and acute leukemia patient populations -- CML, CLL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) -- is projected to grow at only low single-digit compound annual growth rates through 2015, which could potentially hamper research and development efforts.
Anderson Cancer Center and Duke University Medical Center, showed that MK-0457 demonstrated clinical activity in select patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) with the T315I BCR-ABL mutation and also in patients with refractory JAK-2 positive myeloproliferative diseases (MPD).
They are developing new diagnostic tests and target treatments for patients with AML, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and myeloproliferative disorders.
Preliminary interim data are available on 22 patients, of which nine had de novo acute myelogenous leukemia (AML de novo); seven had AML preceded by MDS; three had MDS-refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB); and one each had treatment-related AML, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

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