acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

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acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

A malignant lymphoproliferative process, which commonly affects children and young adults, affecting ± 1800/year (US); ± 650/year (UK).

ALL has a hereditary component; it is 20-fold increased in patients with Down syndrome; it is linked to benzene exposure, radiation therapy in ankylosing spondylitis.
Clinical findings
Abrupt onset, often ± 3-month history of fatigue, fever, haemorrhage from multiple sites, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly.
Molecular pathology
Most are B cells and express CD19; 60% have karyotypic abnormalities; the most common cytogenetic abnormality is the cryptic t(12;21) translocation, resulting in TEL-AML fusion (25% of cases), followed by the t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) translocation, seen in 5% of cases.
90–95% achieve remission; improved cure rate is attributed to prophylaxis for meningeal leukaemia and more intense systemic chemotherapy. The current survival ranges from 20% to 75%.

FAB classification, acute leukaemias
Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL)
L1—Small monotonous lymphocytes.
L2—Mixed L1- and L3-type lymphocytes.
L3—Large homogeneous blast cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
CCIA postgraduate student, Nicole Verrills, has further extended these initial studies using a clinically relevant model of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, earning her a share of the Cass Foundation 'Best of the Best' award at the 2004 Australian Health and Medical Research Congress in Sydney.
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the bone marrow.
for the treatment of adult and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia.
The filing was based on data from two pivotal Phase II trials in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) which will be presented at the 40th American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting in June.

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