acute disseminated encephalomyelitis


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Related to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis

encephalomyelitis

 [en-sef″ah-lo-mi″ĕ-li´tis]
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, vomiting, and drowsiness progressing to lethargy and coma; tremor, seizures, and paralysis may also occur. Mortality ranges from 5 to 20 per cent, and many survivors have residual neurologic deficits.
benign myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome.
equine encephalomyelitis a type of encephalomyelitis in horses and mules, caused by an alphavirus and spread to humans by mosquitoes; it occurs in summer epizootics in the Western Hemisphere. Three forms are recognized: eastern, western, and Venezuelan. Called also equine encephalitis.
equine encephalomyelitis, eastern a viral disease similar to western equine encephalomyelitis, but occurring in a region extending from New Hampshire to Texas and as far west as Wisconsin, and in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America.
equine encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan a viral disease of horses and mules, transmissible to humans; the causative agent was first isolated in Venezuela. The infection in humans resembles influenza, with little or no indication of nervous system involvement.
equine encephalomyelitis, western a viral disease of horses and mules, communicable to humans, occurring chiefly as a meningoencephalitis with little involvement of the medulla oblongata or spinal cord; observed in the United States chiefly west of the Mississippi River.
granulomatous encephalomyelitis a disease marked by granulomas and necrosis of the walls of the cerebral and spinal ventricles.
postinfectious encephalomyelitis (postvaccinal encephalomyelitis) acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

a·cute dis·sem·i·nat·ed en·ceph·a·lo·my·e·li·tis

an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system in which focal demyelination is present throughout the brain and spinal cord. This process is common to postinfectious, postexanthem, and postvaccinal encephalomyelitis.

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

an acute disease of the brain and spinal cord with variable symptoms. It is thought to be an allergic reaction or immune attack on the myelin tissue after a viral infection, such as measles, or, less often, after vaccination for measles, mumps, or rubella. Early symptoms may include fever, headache, vomiting, and drowsiness and progress to seizures, coma, and paralysis. It is often misdiagnosed as a severe attack of multiple sclerosis. Frequently patients who recover experience neurological disorders. Also called acute disseminated encephalitis.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

An acute encephalopathy which usually follows viral infection (1:1,000 cases of measles), bacterial or parasitic infections, or rarely vaccinations (1:106 measles vaccinations) and which is characterised by autoimmune demyelination involving the entire brain, especially the subcortical and central white matter and cortical gray-white junction and spinal cord or may focally affect a nerve or cord root, and is regarded by some as a multiple sclerosis borderline disease.
Epidemiology Affects 8/106/year, primarily children.
Clinical finding Meningial signs and, if serious, coma and death. Treatment None
Mortality & morbidity 5% mortality; up to 75% recover completely and the rest have only minor residual defects.

a·cute dis·sem·i·nat·ed en·ceph·a·lo·my·e·li·tis

(ă-kyūt' di-sem'i-nā-tĕd en-sef'a-lō-mī'ĕ-lī'tis)
An acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system in which focal demyelination is present throughout the brain and spinal cord. This process is common to postinfectious, postexanthem, and postvaccinal encephalomyelitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
This article describes the course of a young female diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with an atypical presentation.
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, also known as ADEM, is the inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by damage to nerve tissue in the brain.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Legionella pneumophila infection.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis on the basis of clinical course.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the white matter in the brain and spinal cord.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute demyelinating disease occurring 1-3 wk after viral infection or vaccination (1,2).
These included acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (6), fulminant multiple sclerosis (3), antiphospholipid syndrome (2), antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (2) and a paraneoplastic encephalitis (1).
An unusual case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis confined to brainstem.
We report the autopsy findings for a 45-year-old man with polyradiculoneuropathy and fatal acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after having Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
of Ottawa, Canada) assembles 21 chapters by scholars and practitioners from North America and Europe, who detail recent neurological research on multiple sclerosis and related demyelinating diseases such as neuromyeletis optica and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

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