rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

(redirected from acute crescentic glomerulonephritis)

glomerulonephritis

 [glo-mer″u-lo-nĕ-fri´tis]
a variety of nephritis characterized by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney. It occurs in acute, subacute, and chronic forms and may be secondary to an infection, especially with the hemolytic streptococcus.
Histologic appearance of acute glomerulonephritis. A, Normal glomerulus. B, Glomerulonephritis. The glomerulus appears hypercellular and the capillaries are narrowed or occluded. From Damjanov, 2000.
diffuse glomerulonephritis a severe form of glomerulonephritis with proliferative changes in more than half the glomeruli, frequently with epithelial crescent formation and necrosis; it is often seen in cases of advanced systemic lupus erythematosus.
IgA glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy.
lobular glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) a chronic glomerulonephritis characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and irregular thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. There are two subtypes: Type I is marked by subendothelial deposits and activation of the classic complement pathway. Type II is marked by heavy deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and activation of the alternative complement pathway. Both types occur in older children and young adults and follow a slowly progressing course with irregular remissions ultimately resulting in renal failure.
membranous glomerulonephritis a form characterized by proteinaceous deposits on the glomerular capillary basement membrane or by thickening of the membrane, with circulating antigen-antibody complexes indicating immune complex disease; it may be secondary to any of numerous other conditions. In some cases it may develop into the nephrotic syndrome. Called also membranous nephropathy.
mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis acute glomerulonephritis marked by a rapid progression to end-stage renal disease and histologically by profuse epithelial proliferation, often with epithelial crescents; principal signs are anuria, proteinuria, hematuria, and anemia. Plasmapheresis or high doses of corticosteroids may lead to recovery of renal function.

rap·id·ly pro·gress·ive glo·mer·u·lo·ne·phri·tis

glomerulonephritis usually presenting insidiously, without preceding streptococcal infection, with increasing renal failure leading to uremia within a few months; at autopsy the kidneys are of normal size, numerous glomerular capsular epithelial crescents are present, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies are frequently found.

rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

Crescentic glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, necrotizing glomerulonephritis Nephrology A type of kidney disease characterized by a rapid loss of renal function, with crescent-shaped deposits in at least 75% of glomeruli seen on kidney biopsies Clinical Acute nephritic syndrome or unexplained renal failure with progression to ESRD; RPGN occurs in ±1/10,000 people, especially between age 40 and 60 Associated diseases Vasculitis, polyarteritis, abscess of internal organ(s), collagen vascular disease–eg, SLE, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, Goodpasture syndrome, IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative GN, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease, Hx of malignancy or blood or lymphatic disorders, and exposure to hydrocarbon solvents. See End-stage renal disease, Glomerulonephritis.

rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

Abbreviation: RPGN
Any glomerular disease in which there is rapid loss of renal function, usually with crescent-shaped lesions in more than 50% of the glomeruli.
References in periodicals archive ?
A kidney biopsy showed acute necrotizing and pauci-immune acute crescentic glomerulonephritis consistent with Wegener granulomatosis (1) (Figure 2).
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