acute chest syndrome

a·cute chest syn·drome

a syndrome occurring in association with sickle cell disease defined by a new infiltrate on chest radiograph; associated with one or more new symptoms: fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnea, or hypoxia. It occurs most commonly in the 2-4-year-old age group and declines in incidence with age. A past history of this finding is associated with earlier mortality compared with those patients who have never experienced an episode.

acute chest syndrome

A condition seen in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), which is the most common cause for hospitalisation in SCA in children and caused by vascular occlusion and/or infection. It is clinically defined as any new infiltrate in an SCA patient, associated with one or more new symptoms—e.g., fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnoea, or hypoxia. Acute chest syndrome can occur in any haemoglobinopathy—e.g., Hb SS, Hb SC, Hb S ß+-thalassemia, Hb S ß0-thalassemia, etc.

Clinical findings
In children: fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates.

Aetiology of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickling haemoglobins
Pulmonary infarction—in situ sickling, fat embolism syndrome, hypoventilation secondary to rib/sternal bone infarction, hypoventilation secondary to narcotic administration, pulmonary oedema induced by narcotics or fluid overload.

acute chest syndrome

Hematology A complex seen in Pts with sickle cell anemia–SCA Clinical Fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates; it is the most common cause for hospitalization in SCA and is due to vascular occlusion and/or infection; in children, ACS is often due to bacterial pneumonia, especially.S pneumoniae–preventable by pneumococcal vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and others. See Sickle cell anemia.

acute chest syndrome

A complication of sickle cell disease resulting from vascular occlusion or infection in the lungs and marked by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, rales and rhonchi, leukocytosis, and lobar consolidation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sickle cell is a complicated disease, and for this discussion we will focus on the acute chest syndrome, or ACS, of sickle cell disease.
These comorbidities include vaso-occlusive crisis, Acute Chest Syndrome, leg ulcers and pediatric and adult stroke.
Avoidance of complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, renal failure, vascular necrosis will also be in the spotlight.
Among patients with sickle cell disease and acute anemia, fewer than expected had acute chest syndrome, aplastic crisis, or splenic sequestration, although these still accounted for the majority.
Chapters examine malaria resistance in red cell disorders, resonant Raman studies on functional erythrocytes, psychobiological reactivity in children with sickle cell disease, and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease.
Rare, life-threatening complications of sickle cell anemia, such as acute chest syndrome, may occur at the time of delivery.
Researchers are also working to better understand complications of the disease, such as acute chest syndrome, which can develop without warning.
There was no correlation between BNP levels and the rate of painful episodes or acute chest syndrome, the use of hydroxyurea, or leukocyte count.
Sickle cell crises involve vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, and stroke, and often require hospitalization.
These 2 processes result in what has been termed the acute chest syndrome.
Acute pulmonary complications consist of the acute chest syndrome that presents a differential diagnosis between pneumonia, pulmonary infarction, fat embolism from infarcted bone marrow, and parvovirus infection.

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