acute chest syndrome

a·cute chest syn·drome

a syndrome occurring in association with sickle cell disease defined by a new infiltrate on chest radiograph; associated with one or more new symptoms: fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnea, or hypoxia. It occurs most commonly in the 2-4-year-old age group and declines in incidence with age. A past history of this finding is associated with earlier mortality compared with those patients who have never experienced an episode.

acute chest syndrome

A condition seen in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), which is the most common cause for hospitalisation in SCA in children and caused by vascular occlusion and/or infection. It is clinically defined as any new infiltrate in an SCA patient, associated with one or more new symptoms—e.g., fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnoea, or hypoxia. Acute chest syndrome can occur in any haemoglobinopathy—e.g., Hb SS, Hb SC, Hb S ß+-thalassemia, Hb S ß0-thalassemia, etc.

Clinical findings
In children: fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates.

Aetiology of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickling haemoglobins
Pulmonary infarction—in situ sickling, fat embolism syndrome, hypoventilation secondary to rib/sternal bone infarction, hypoventilation secondary to narcotic administration, pulmonary oedema induced by narcotics or fluid overload.

acute chest syndrome

Hematology A complex seen in Pts with sickle cell anemia–SCA Clinical Fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates; it is the most common cause for hospitalization in SCA and is due to vascular occlusion and/or infection; in children, ACS is often due to bacterial pneumonia, especially.S pneumoniae–preventable by pneumococcal vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and others. See Sickle cell anemia.

acute chest syndrome

A complication of sickle cell disease resulting from vascular occlusion or infection in the lungs and marked by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, rales and rhonchi, leukocytosis, and lobar consolidation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients who were treated with Endari over a 48-week period experienced fewer crisis episodes compared to patients who received a placebo, fewer hospitalizations for sickle cell pain, fewer days in the hospital, and ewer occurrences of acute chest syndrome, a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease.
06 (ANI): A study has recently warned that if Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), a potentially severe lung complication of sickle cell disease, is not treated effectively in children then it may increase the risk of respiratory failure, chronic lung disease and prolonged hospitalisation.
The misshapen cells clog smaller blood vessels, resulting in excruciating pain and putting patients at an increased risk of infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke.
Maternal complications recorded were anaemia, different types of crisis, acute chest syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia, eclampsia and maternal death.
11 days) and fewer occurrences of potentially life-threatening acute chest syndrome (8.
Additional findings indicated a decrease in cumulative hospital days by 41% and lower incidence of acute chest syndrome by more than 60%.
Acute chest syndrome and cor pulmonale cause sudden pulmonary disease.
He believed the exertion caused during the fight could have brought on an acute chest syndrome - which Prof Lucas' report said could have led to death.
Sickle cell disease can cause pain and other serious problems, such as infection, acute chest syndrome, and stroke, and can lead to lifelong disabilities and reduced life expectancy.
As a result of this pathology, patients experience repeated episodes of vaso-occlusive crisis or VOC, acute chest syndrome or ACS, damage to other organs including the liver, spleen, kidney and the brain.
3) The second case was a patient with SCD with the acute chest syndrome without response to exchange transfusion.
Tucson based pharmaceutical company NuvOx Pharma declared that it has gained orphan drug designation from the FDA for its investigational drug NVX-508 for vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease.

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