acute chest syndrome
a·cute chest syn·drome
a syndrome occurring in association with sickle cell disease defined by a new infiltrate on chest radiograph; associated with one or more new symptoms: fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnea, or hypoxia. It occurs most commonly in the 2-4-year-old age group and declines in incidence with age. A past history of this finding is associated with earlier mortality compared with those patients who have never experienced an episode.
acute chest syndromeA condition seen in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), which is the most common cause for hospitalisation in SCA in children and caused by vascular occlusion and/or infection. It is clinically defined as any new infiltrate in an SCA patient, associated with one or more new symptoms—e.g., fever, cough, sputum production, dyspnoea, or hypoxia. Acute chest syndrome can occur in any haemoglobinopathy—e.g., Hb SS, Hb SC, Hb S ß+-thalassemia, Hb S ß0-thalassemia, etc.
In children: fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates.
Aetiology of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickling haemoglobins
Pulmonary infarction—in situ sickling, fat embolism syndrome, hypoventilation secondary to rib/sternal bone infarction, hypoventilation secondary to narcotic administration, pulmonary oedema induced by narcotics or fluid overload.
acute chest syndromeHematology A complex seen in Pts with sickle cell anemia–SCA Clinical Fever, tachycardia, chest pain, leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates; it is the most common cause for hospitalization in SCA and is due to vascular occlusion and/or infection; in children, ACS is often due to bacterial pneumonia, especially.S pneumoniae–preventable by pneumococcal vaccine, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and others. See Sickle cell anemia.
acute chest syndrome
A complication of sickle cell disease resulting from vascular occlusion or infection in the lungs and marked by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, rales and rhonchi, leukocytosis, and lobar consolidation.