acute care


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Related to acute care: Acute Care Hospital, Acute Care Nurse Practitioner

acute

 [ah-kūt´]
1. sharp.
2. having severe symptoms and a short course. Some serious illnesses that were formerly considered acute (such as myocardial infarction) are now recognized to be acute episodes of chronic conditions.
acute care the level of care in the health care system that consists of emergency treatment and critical care. Called also secondary care.
acute coronary syndrome a classification encompassing clinical presentations ranging from unstable angina through myocardial infarctions not characterized by alterations in Q waves; the classification sometimes also includes myocardial infarctions characterized by altered Q waves.
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a group of symptoms accompanying fulminant pulmonary edema and resulting in acute respiratory failure; called also shock lung, wet lung, and many other names descriptive of etiology or clinical manifestations. Many etiologic factors have been associated with ARDS, including shock, fat embolism, fluid overload, oxygen toxicity, fluid aspiration, narcotic overdose, disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple transfusions, inhalation of toxic gases, diffuse pulmonary infection, and systemic reactions to sepsis, pancreatitis, and massive trauma or burns.

ARDS is characterized clinically by dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, cyanosis, and hypoxemia. PaO2/FIO2 remains low (below 2 cc) even with oxygen therapy at high oxygen concentrations. The lung compliance is decreased so that the lung is stiffer and more difficult to ventilate. Chest radiographs show signs of bilateral interstitial and alveolar edema. Cardiac filling pressures are normal, and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is below 18 torr.

Most authorities consider that the syndrome has three phases or stages that characterize its progression: the exudative stage, the fibroproliferative or proliferative stage, and the resolution or recovery stage. The exudative stage comes first, two to four days after onset of lung injury, and is distinguished by the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveoli with entrance of protein and inflammatory cells from the alveolar capillaries into the air spaces. The fibroproliferative stage comes second and is characterized by an increase in connective tissue and other structural elements in the lungs in response to the initial injury. It begins between the first and third weeks after the initial injury and may last up to ten weeks. Microscopic examination reveals lung tissue that appears densely cellular. The patient is at risk for pneumonia, sepsis, and pneumothorax at this time. The third stage is the resolution or recovery stage. During this stage the lung reorganizes and recovers, although it continues to show signs of fibrosis. Lung function may continue to improve for as long as six to twelve months or even longer, depending on the precipitating condition and severity of the injury. It is important to remember that there are often different levels of pulmonary recovery in patients with ARDS.

Some authorities refer to a fourth phase or stage of ARDS, the period after the resolution or recovery stage. Some patients continue to experience health problems caused by the acute illness, such as coughing, limited exercise tolerance, and fatigue. Anxiety, depression, and flashback memories of the critical illness may also occur and be similar to posttraumatic stress disorder.
Treatment and Patient Care. Mechanical ventilation must be begun at the first signs of hyperventilation and hypoxemia, before obvious signs of respiratory distress develop. A cuffed endotracheal tube or tracheostomy tube is used to maintain an airway. The patient is ventilated at the lowest oxygen concentration that maintains the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) at 90 per cent. positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be used to increase the number of alveoli that remain open at the end of exhalation and thus decrease pulmonary shunt. hemodynamic monitoring, using a swan-ganz catheter, is done to measure cardiac output, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and right atrial wedge pressure. An arterial line is placed to continuously monitor blood pressure and measure arterial blood gases. A diuretic such as furosemide (Lasix) may be administered to reduce fluid volume overload and pulmonary edema. If infection develops, antibiotics are administered. Hemodynamic parameters, arterial blood gas levels, intake and output, breath sounds, vital signs, inspiratory pressure, tidal volume, inspired oxygen concentration, and end-expiratory pressure are all continuously monitored.
acute situational reaction a transient, self-limiting acute emotional reaction to severe psychological stress. See acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and brief reactive psychosis.
acute stress disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by development of anxiety, dissociation, and other symptoms within one month following exposure to an extremely traumatic event, the symptoms including reexperiencing the event, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, anxiety or increased arousal, and some or all of the following: a subjective sense of diminished emotional responsiveness, numbing, or detachment, derealization, depersonalization, and amnesia for aspects of the event. If persistent, it may become posttraumatic stress disorder.
acute stress reaction acute situational reaction.

care

 [kār]
the services rendered by members of the health professions for the benefit of a patient. See also treatment.
acute care see acute care.
admission care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating entry of a patient into a health care facility.
adult day care a health care service provided for adults with a disability or illness who need partial or supplemental care and companionship during the day, when family members are working or otherwise unable to stay at home with a disabled relative. Among the services that may be offered at an adult day care center are nursing services (e.g., medication administration and health monitoring); nutritional and health education, health counseling; physical, speech, and occupational therapy; and socialization.
ambulatory care health services or acute care services that are provided on an outpatient basis.
amputation care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of physical and psychological healing after amputation of a body part.
bed rest care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of comfort and safety and prevention of complications for a patient unable to get out of bed. See also bed rest.
bladder care activities and interventions designed to maintain urinary bladder function, including bladder retraining, catheter change, and catheter irrigation.
bowel care activities and interventions designed to maintain bowel function, including enema, bowel training, diet, and medication.
bowel incontinence care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of bowel continence and maintenance of perianal skin integrity.
bowel incontinence care: encopresis in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of bowel continence in children.
cardiac care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the limitation of complications resulting from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand for a patient with symptoms of impaired cardiac function.
cardiac care: acute in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the limitation of complications for a patient recently experiencing an episode of an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand resulting in impaired cardiac function.
cardiac care: rehabilitative in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of maximal functional activity level for a patient who has suffered an episode of impaired cardiac functon which resulted from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand.
cast care activities and interventions designed to protect and maintain an immobilized body part, including relief of pain, pressure or constriction of circulation. See also hazards of immobility.
cast care: maintenance in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as care of a cast after the drying period.
cast care: wet in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as care of a new cast during the drying period.
cesarean section care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the preparation and support of a patient delivering a baby by cesarean section.
circulatory care: arterial insuficiency in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of arterial circulation.
circulatory care: mechanical assist device in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as temporary support of the circulation through the use of mechanical devices or pumps.
circulatory care: venous insufficiency in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of venous circulation.
contact lens care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prevention of eye injury and lens damage by proper use of contact lenses.
continuing care the level of care in the health care system that consists of ongoing care of the physically handicapped, mentally retarded, emotionally retarded, and those suffering from chronic incapacitating illness.
cord care specialized care of the remnants of a newborn's umbilical cord until it falls off, consisting of cleaning and precautions to prevent infection. Cleansing protocols continue until the site is completely healed.
critical care intensive care.
culture-specific care those assistive, supportive, or facilitative acts toward or for an individual or group with evident or anticipated needs that are congruent with the values and lifestyles of an individual, family, or group of a specific culture, as used in the cultural care diversity and universality theory.
day care/respite in the omaha system, the providing by an individual or institution of supervision for a dependent child or adult in the abscence of the usual caregiver or parent.
developmental care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as structuring the environment and providing care in response to the behavioral cues and states of the preterm infant.
direct care the provision of services to a patient that require some degree of interaction between the patient and the health care provider. Examples include assessment, performing procedures, teaching, and implementation of a care plan.
dying care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of physical comfort and psychological peace in the final phase of life. See also dying.
ear care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as prevention or minimization of threats to ear or hearing.
embolus care: peripheral in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as limitation of complications for a patient experiencing, or at risk for, occlusion of peripheral circulation. See also embolus.
embolus care: pulmonary in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as limitation of complications for a patient experiencing, or at risk for, occlusion of pulmonary circulation. See also embolus.
emergency care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing life-saving measures in life-threatening situations. See also emergency.
episodic care interventions aimed at patient cure or restoration to previous level of functioning.
eye care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prevention or minimization of threats to eye or visual integrity.
family-centered maternity care a pattern of caring for infants and their families used by Health and Welfare Canada. It is characterized by a great deal of flexibility and parental choice, and health care professionals are encouraged to individualize care. Breast feeding and rooming in are encouraged and grandparent and sibling visits are permitted.
foot care see foot care.
hair care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the promotion of neat, clean, and attractive hair.
health care see health care system.
high-risk pregnancy care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as identification and management of a high-risk pregnancy to promote healthy outcomes for mother and baby.
home health care see home health care.
incision site care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as cleansing, monitoring, and promotion of healing in a wound that is closed with sutures, clips, or staples.
indirect care services that are related to patient care but do not require interaction between the health care provider and the patient. Examples include charting and scheduling.
infant care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the provision of developmentally appropriate family-centered care to the child under one year of age.
intensive care the care of seriously ill patients in a special hospital unit; see intensive care unit. Called also critical care.
intrapartal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the monitoring and management of stages one and two of the birth process. See labor.
intrapartal care: high-risk delivery in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assisting vaginal birth of multiple or malpositioned fetuses.
kangaroo care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promoting closeness between parent and physiologically stable preterm infant by preparing the parent and providing the environment for skin-to-skin contact.
kinlein care kinlein.
long-term care health care services required for an extended period of time by individuals unable to fully execute activities of daily living; it can be provided by a variety of agencies in outpatient settings as well as on an inpatient basis.
managed care a method of health care delivery that focuses on collaboration among and coordination of all services to avoid overlap, duplication, and delays and to reduce costs. There is an emphasis on efficacy and timeliness of interventions to prevent unnecessary delays in discharge from the hospital or agency.
medical/dental care in the omaha system, diagnosis and treatment by a physician or dentist.
mouth care see mouth care.
nail care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of clean, neat, attractive nails and prevention of skin lesions related to improper care of nails.
newborn care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of the neonate during the transition to extrauterine life and the subsequent period of stabilization.
nursing care in the omaha system, therapeutic activities in addition to intermittent service, including private duty nursing.
ostomy care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of elimination through a stoma and care of surrounding tissue. See also ostomy.
ostomy care (omaha) in the omaha system, management of elimination through artificial openings, including colostomy and ileostomy.
palliative care supportive care.
perineal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of perianal skin integrity and relief of perineal discomfort.
peripherally inserted central catheter care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as insertion and maintenance of a peripherally inserted central catheter.
personal care the management of hygiene, including bathing, shampooing, shaving, nail trimming, dressing, and so on.
point of care the location at which patient services are delivered.
postanesthesia care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient who has recently undergone general or regional anesthesia.
postmortem care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as providing physical care of the body of an expired patient and support for the family viewing the body.
postoperative care see postoperative care.
postpartal care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient who has recently given birth.
pregnancy termination care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the management of the physical and psychological needs of the woman undergoing a spontaneous or elective abortion.
prenatal care
1. care of the pregnant woman before delivery of the infant. See also pregnancy.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as monitoring and management of the patient during pregnancy to prevent complications of pregnancy and promote a healthy outcome for both mother and infant.
preoperative care see preoperative care.
pressure ulcer care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of healing in pressure ulcers.
preventive care the level of care in the health care system that consists of public health services and related programs such as school health education.
primary care the routine outpatient care that a patient receives at first contact with the health care system.
prosthesis care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the care of a removable appliance worn by a patient and the prevention of complications associated with its use. See also prosthesis.
respiratory care see respiratory care.
respite care
1. services provided by a health care agency that permit a primary caregiver temporary relief from caring for an ill individual.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the provision of short-term care to provide relief for a family caregiver.
restorative care the level of care in the health care system that consists of follow-up care and rehabilitation to an optimal functional level.
secondary care
1. treatment by specialists to whom a patient has been referred by primary care facilities; see also health care system.
self care the performance of basic activities of daily living; see also under assistance and deficit.
sickness/injury care in the omaha system, the appropriate responses to illness or accidents, including first aid, taking temperature, and seeking medical care.
skilled nursing care the services provided by a registered nurse in a skilled nursing facility. It currently includes observation during periods of acute or unstable illness; administration of intravenous fluids, enteral feedings, and intravenous or intramuscular medications; short-term bowel and bladder retraining; and changing of sterile dressings.
skin care activities and interventions designed to maintain integrity of integument, including care of pressure ulcers and massage.
skin care: topical treatments in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the application of topical substances or manipulation of devices to promote skin integrity and minimize skin breakdown.
spiritual care see spiritual care.
subacute care comprehensive goal-oriented inpatient care designed for a patient who has had an acute illness, injury, or exacerbation of a disease process; it is rendered either immediately after or instead of acute care hospitalization, to treat specific active or complex medical conditions or to administer any necessary technically complex medical treatments in the context of the person's underlying long-term condition.
supportive care interventions that help the patient achieve comfort but do not affect the course of a disease. Called also palliative care or treatment.
tertiary care the level of care in the health care system that consists of complex procedures given in a health care center that has highly trained specialists and often advanced technology.
total patient care a method of organizing care of patients such that one practitioner carries out all care requirements.
traction/immobilization care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient who has traction and/or a stabilizing device to immobilize and stabilize a body part.
tube care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external drainage device exiting the body.
tube care: chest in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external water-seal drainage device exiting the chest cavity.
tube care: gastrointestinal in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with a gastrointestinal tube.
tube care: umbilical line in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a newborn with an umbilical catheter.
tube care: urinary in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with urinary drainage equipment.
tube care: ventriculostomy/lumbar drain in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of a patient with an external cerebrospinal fluid drainage system. See also ventriculostomy and drain.
urinary incontinence care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assistance in promoting continence and maintaining perineal skin integrity. See also urinary incontinence.
urinary incontinence care: enuresis in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of urinary continence in children.
urinary retention care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assistance in relieving bladder distention. See also retention of urine.
wound care in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as prevention of wound complications and promotion of wound healing.
wound care: closed drainage in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as maintenance of a pressure drainage system at the wound site.

acute care

n.
Short-term medical treatment, usually in a hospital, for patients having an acute illness or injury or recovering from surgery.

acute care

a pattern of health care in which a patient is treated for a brief but severe episode of illness, for the sequelae of an accident or other trauma, or during recovery from surgery. Acute care is usually given in a hospital by specialized personnel using complex and sophisticated technical equipment and materials, and it may involve intensive or emergency care. This pattern of care is often necessary for only a short time, unlike chronic care.

acute care

Critical care
Care administered to a patient with an acute trauma—e.g., burns, trauma, cardiac arrest, or other condition—which may be administered in ambulances, ERs, CCUs, and elsewhere.
 
Managed care
Skilled, medically necessary healthcare provided by medical and nursing personnel to restore a person to good health.
 
Medspeak-UK
A general term for medical or surgical care provided in hospital, which may or may not be due to an acute illness.

Acute Care

A general term for short-term hospital-based or emergency health services.

acute care

Critical care Care administered to a Pt with an acute-eg burns, trauma, cardiac arrest, or other condition, which may be administered in ambulances, ERs, CCUs, and elsewhere Managed care Skilled, medically necessary health care provided by medical and nursing personnel to restore a person to good health

a·cute care

(ă-kyūt' kār)
Short-term care for serious diseases or trauma.

acute

1. brief.
2. common usage is 'having severe signs and a short course of 12 to 24 hours'. See also under organ (e.g. pancreatitis), system (e.g. respiratory), causative agent (e.g. arsenic) or lesion (e.g. myonecrosis).

acute bovine pulmonary emphysema-edema
acute care
see secondary health care.
acute death syndrome of chickens
sudden death, for no apparent reason, in 2 to 3 week old broiler chicks; clinical signs of falling, wing flapping and convulsions may occur for about a minute before death.
acute phase response
the rapid change in composition of certain plasma proteins, largely due to alteration in hepatic synthesis, in response to infection or inflammation. Although the purpose is not well understood, these changes are believed to assist in immune response. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a laboratory indicator of the acute phase response. See also c-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor.
acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
see acute respiratory distress syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Payment for such cases would be based on the payment that the short-term acute care hospital would have received.
Options range from closing county hospitals and clinics, and privatizing the system to keeping some hospitals open as trauma, emergency room and acute care facilities.
Subacute has emerged within three major segments of the industry: acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and nursing homes.
Regency Hospital Company is a national network of Long Term Acute Care (LTAC) hospitals.
The unit should employ round-the-clock acute care nursing specialists working under the direction of a nurse/clinician who coordinates the delivery of services.
MVH maintains 108 acute care beds, 16 transitional care beds, and 17 adult behavioral medicine beds; all are private rooms.
In this new system, patients who were normally treated in acute care hospitals or acute rehabilitation hospitals at $800 to $1,000 per day could be provided the same care in a subacute setting in a nursing home at $300 to $500 per day.
Fitch views the increase in the behavioral health business as a positive, since the market has several favorable characteristics that differentiate it from the acute care market.
Challenge: "The challenge is going to be to appropriately structure the role of the nursing home to provide economical, high-quality long-term care that will span from the acute care environment all the way to assisted living.
Victoria Warm Springs Hospital, a 29,910 square foot long-term acute care hospital with 29 beds located in Victoria.
Peck: What are some basic considerations for an administrator in trying to recruit RNs who have been laid off from their acute care jobs?
The agreement with Plymouth Health fulfills Tenet's promise to find a qualified buyer who would keep Alvarado Hospital Medical Center open as an acute care hospital.

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