acute bacterial meningitis


Also found in: Acronyms.

bacterial meningitis

Meningeal inflammation caused by bacteria which, if untreated, is often fatal, or associated with significant sequelae.
 
Epidemiology
60% are community acquired (C), 40% nosocomial (N); predisposing factors:
• Recent neurosurgery/use of neurosurgical devices—60% N;
• Immune dysfunction—20.5% N, 7.5% C;
• CSF leak—8.6% N, 3% C;
• Head injury—8.6% N, 3.5% C;
• Acute or chronic otitis media—< 1% N, 10% C;
• Others—Sinusitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, diabetes, alcoholism.

Microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae > Streptococcus pneumoniae > Neisseria meningitidis.

Management
Antibiotics and dexamethasone.

Mortality
± 25%; highest in those > age 60, obtunded at presentation or with seizures in past 24 hours.

acute bacterial meningitis

See Bacterial meningitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
In one case of acute bacterial meningitis, Gram staining showed gram-positive diplococci and the UF-100 bacterial count was high, whereas the culture remained negative after 7 days, probably because of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture.
In spite of many improvements in health care system, acute bacterial meningitis remains a life threatening infectious emergency accounting a mortality rate not less than 10 per cent (1).
Specimen collection: A total of 267 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were received from patients under 14 yr suspected of suffering from acute bacterial meningitis admitted to the paediatric and neurosurgery wards of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Hospital, New Delhi, between July 2002 to December 2003.
Proulx's review of 123 adults who were diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis at the Ottawa Hospital, 13% of whom died, a 6-hour time lapse prior to administration of antibiotics was independently associated with an 8.
The preferable approach is to begin with the antibiotics and then follow-up with the confirmatory studies when acute bacterial meningitis is suspected, as in patients with the classic triad of neck stiffness, altered mental status, and fever.
Acute bacterial meningitis in children admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi in 1996-1997.
Acute bacterial meningitis is one of the most severe infectious diseases, causing neurologic sequelae and accounting for an estimated 171,000 deaths worldwide per year (1,2).
The 3 most common etiologic agents are Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which account for 90% of reported cases of acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children >4 weeks of age (7,8).
This reporting system is supported by a laboratory-based surveillance network for acute bacterial meningitis that has been coordinated by the Microbiology Group at the Instituto Nacional de Salud since 1994 (2,3).
From 1994 through 2005, the laboratory-based surveillance program identified serogroup B as the most frequently isolated serogroup that caused acute bacterial meningitis in Colombia.
Trends of etiology of acute bacterial meningitis in Chilean children from 1989 to 1998.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis was transferred from the Institut Pasteur (Paris, France) for research purposes in October 2002.

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