acute abdomen


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abdomen

 [ab´dah-men, ab-do´men]
the anterior portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; it contains the abdominal cavity, which is separated from the chest area by the diaphragm. The cavity, which is lined with a membrane known as the peritoneum, contains the stomach, large and small intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and other structures. Called also belly and venter. adj., adj abdom´inal.
Internal structures of the abdomen.
acute abdomen (surgical abdomen) an acute intra-abdominal condition of abrupt onset, usually associated with severe pain due to inflammation, perforation, obstruction, infarction, or rupture of abdominal organs, and usually requiring emergency surgical intervention.

a·cute ab·do·men

any serious acute intraabdominal condition (for example, appendicitis) attended by pain, tenderness, and muscular rigidity and for which emergency surgery must be considered.
Synonym(s): surgical abdomen

acute abdomen

an abnormal condition characterized by the acute onset of severe pain within the abdominal cavity. An acute abdomen requires immediate evaluation and diagnosis because it may indicate a condition that calls for surgical intervention. Information about the onset, duration, character, location, and symptoms associated with the pain is critical in making an accurate diagnosis. The patient is asked what decreases or increases the pain; constant, increasing pain is generally associated with appendicitis and diverticulitis, whereas intermittent pain more likely indicates an intestinal obstruction, ureteral calculi, or biliary calculi. Appendicitis may often be differentiated from a perforating ulcer by the slower onset or development of pain. Although the patient's report of the location of the pain is sometimes misleading because of referral, radiation, or reflection of pain, it may serve to identify a specific organ or system. Factors in the patient's history that are useful in the diagnosis and management of an acute abdomen include changes in bowel habits, weight loss, bloody stool, diarrhea, menses, vomiting, clay-colored stool, and previous abdominal surgery. Also called surgical abdomen. See also abdominal pain.

acute abdomen

A relatively nonspecific symptom complex, in which a patient is first seen in a "toxic" state, complaining of incapacitating abdominal pain, variably accompanied by fever, and leukocytosis; AA may also be defined as an acute intra-abdominal inflammatory process that may require surgical intervention. Appendicitis is the most common cause of an AA, but nearly 100 other conditions may present in a similar fashion, in particular, ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a fallopian tube, ruptured acute diverticulitis and acute mesenteric lymphadenitis.

Acute abdomen aetiology
Infection
Amebiasis, hepatitis, falciparum malaria, pneumococcal pneumonia, rheumatic fever, salmonella gastroenteritis, staphylococcal toxemia, syphilis in “tabetic crisis”, trichinosis, TB, typhoid fever, viral enteritides, herpes zoster, infectious mononucleosis, Whipple’s disease.
 
Inflammation
Appendicitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, SLE, mesenteric lymphadenitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis due to organ perforation, perinephric abscesses, pyelonephritis, ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schönlein disease.
 
Intoxication
Black widow spider bite, heavy metals, mushrooms ischaemia.

Renal infarction, mesenteric arterial thrombosis.
 
Malignancy
Pain due to organ infarction, Hodgkin lymphoma classically associated with alcohol ingestion, leukaemia, lymphoproliferative disorders.
 
Metabolic disease
Adrenal insufficiency (Addisonian crisis), diabetic ketoacidosis, familial hyperlipoproteinemia, familial Mediterranean fever, hemochromatosis, hereditary angioneurotic oedema, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, acute intermittent porphyria, uremia, substance-abuse withdrawal.
 
Ob/Gyn
Twisted ovarian cyst, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease.

Referred pain
Pneumonia, MI, pleuritis, pericarditis, myocarditis, hematomata of the rectal muscle, renal colic, peptic ulcer, nerve root compression.

Trauma
Perforation/rupture (aortic aneurysm), spleen, bladder.

acute abdomen

A relatively nonspecific symptom complex, in which a Pt is first seen in a 'toxic' state, complaining of incapacitating abdominal pain, variably accompanied by fever, and leukocytosis; AA may also be defined as an acute intra-abdominal inflammatory process that may require surgical intervention; appendicitis is the most common cause of an AA; nearly 100 other conditions may present in a similar fashion, in particular, ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a fallopian tube, ruptured acute diverticulitis and acute mesenteric lymphadenitis.
Acute abdomen etiology
Infection
Amebiasis, hepatitis, falciparum malaria, pneumococcal pneumonia, rheumatic fever, salmonella gastroenteritis, staphylococcal toxemia, syphilis in 'tabetic crisis,' trichinosis, TB, typhoid fever, viral enteritides, herpes zoster, infectious mononucleosis, Whipple's disease
Inflammation
Appendicitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, SLE, mesenteric lymphadenitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis due to organ perforation, perinephric abscesses, pyelonephritis, ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schönlein disease
Intoxication
Black widow spider bite, heavy metals, mushrooms
Ischemia
Renal infarction, mesenteric arterial thrombosis
Malignancy
Pain due to organ infarction, Hodgkin's disease ('classically' associated with alcohol ingestion), leukemia, lymphoproliferative disorders
Metabolic disease
Adrenal insufficiency (Addisonian crisis), DKA, familial hyperlipoproteinemia, familial Mediterranean fever, hemochromatosis, hereditary angioneurotic edema, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, acute intermittent porphyria, uremia, substance abuse withdrawal
Ob/Gyn
Twisted ovarian cyst, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, PD
Referred pain
Pneumonia, MI, pleuritis, pericarditis, myocarditis, hematomata of the rectal muscle, renal colic, peptic ulcer, nerve root compression
Trauma
Perforation/rupture–aortic aneurysm, spleen, bladder

a·cute ab·do·men

(ă-kyūt' ab'dŏ-mĕn)
Any serious sudden intraabdominal condition (such as appendicitis) attended by pain, tenderness, and muscular rigidity, and for which emergency surgery must be considered.
Synonym(s): surgical abdomen.

acute abdomen

A semi-formal term for a surgical emergency involving the abdominal contents in which the patient is suffering severe pain and often SHOCK. Common causes of acute abdomen include PERITONITIS from ruptured APPENDIX following appendicitis or perforated PEPTIC ULCER, and ruptured spleen or liver following injury. Urgent operative treatment is almost always required.

a·cute ab·do·men

(ă-kyūt' ab'dŏ-mĕn)
Any serious acute intraabdominal condition with pain, tenderness, and muscular rigidity and for which emergency surgery must be considered.

abdomen

the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity. See also abdominal.

acute abdomen
an acute intra-abdominal condition of abrupt onset, usually associated with pain due to inflammation, perforation, obstruction, infarction or rupture of abdominal organs, and usually requiring emergency intervention. Called also surgical abdomen.
gaunt abdomen
decreased abdominal size.
surgical abdomen
see acute abdomen (above).

Patient discussion about acute abdomen

Q. Uncomfortable in my left-lower abdomen. But it is not acute or dull pain at all. I'm starting to feel uncomfortable in my lower-left abdomen. I roughly guess it started summer in 2008. Certainly, it's not acute or even dull pain at all. But it makes me very uncomfortable when I sit on the chair. I can feel it by sitting on the chair. Such uncomfortableness seems to reside in somewhere between my left leg and abdomen. It is under my navel, and to the left, extending to the my left flank. Once again, I can sense it by touching something developing (With my fingers, I gently pressed that area and, I realized that there's a difference between pressing on the lower-left abdomen and the lower-right abdomen.) But it is not something swollen, and not a hard thing. I've never had the caecum removed. I'm 40 years old, East asian. I quitted smoking in early 90's. In Octocber, 2008 I found my blood pressure pretty good (I can't remember it, though). My life is quite sedentary (I'm a graduate student.) I guess I spend most of my daily time on the chair. Thanks for any opinion in advance.

A. hi '''i do have the same thing all what i do is keep it higher than my hart and after a lettel time it well come back to normal and i advice you to go see a d'r when you have the rhit time for it.......and happy holly day and happy 2009..lolo21

More discussions about acute abdomen
References in periodicals archive ?
The diagnosis of acute abdomen is not always straightforward and an accurate diagnostic approach is required to get the right decision.
Nurses who work with SCI patients, whether in the ICU, medical or surgical unit, or rehabilitation unit, need to be aware of the altered or muted presentation of acute abdomen in this population.
Serum lipase concentrations were higher than the upper limit of normal in all patients with acute pancreatitis, in three patients with acute abdomen of other etiologies (7.
In the pediatric population, it can be considered in the differential diagnosis for any patient with an abdominal mass, vague abdominal pain, obstructive symptoms, or an acute abdomen.
Acute cholecystitis is the second most-common cause of the non-traumatic acute abdomen during pregnancy.
Surgery in patients with neutropenia, thrombopenia and sepsis who present with an acute abdomen is however associated with a high mortality.
In most clinical situations, the acute abdomen combined with profound shock and anemia in a young female with no history of trauma would lead to the consideration of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ovarian cyst.
However, as in this case, there may be scant signs of an acute abdomen if the rupture is initially contained within the lesser sac.
Aged patients with an acute abdomen might not complain of abdominal pain, and abdominal tenderness might be relatively mild (5).
Perforated jejunal diverticulitis as a rare cause of acute abdomen.