acute HIV syndrome
Acute HIV SyndromeA transient, flu-like early response to HIV-1, that occurs 1 to 6 weeks after exposure to HIV-1 in 50%–70% of those with primary HIV infection. AHS presents as an acute infectious mononucleosis-like complex and is accompanied by viraemia and an immune response to HIV within 1 week to 3 months.
Clinical findings Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and a maculopapular rash; less commonly, diarrhoea, lightning-like pain, major weight loss, abdominal cramping, palmoplantar desquamation, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, photophobia, pruritic or urticarial rash, lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy, all symptoms remit, and reappear as AIDS after a latency of up to several years.
Lab Mild leukopaenia, occasionally inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio, antibodies to HIV products—gp120, gp160, p24 and p41 first appear ≥ months after infection. The syndrome affects one-third of previously healthy heterosexual subjects but is uncommon in homosexual males.