active immunization


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immunization

 [im″u-nĭ-za´shun]
the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. Called also inoculation and vaccination. The word vaccine originally referred to the substance used to immunize against smallpox, the first immunization developed. Now, however, the term is used for any preparation used in active immunization.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice that reviews childhood immunization schedules yearly. The recommended childhood immunization schedule is reprinted in Appendix 7-1. In Canada, the Health Protection Branch Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health Canada, National Advisory Committee on Immunization publishes a recommended childhood vaccination schedule for Canada (reprinted in Appendix 7-3). Adult immunization schedules for the United States and Canada are found in Appendices 7-2 and 7-4.
active immunization stimulation with a specific antigen to promote antibody formation in the body. The antigenic substance may be in one of four forms: (1) dead bacteria, as in typhoid fever immunization; (2) dead viruses, as in the Salk poliomyelitis injection; (3) live attenuated virus, e.g., smallpox vaccine and Sabin polio vaccine (taken orally); and (4) toxoids, altered forms of toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and diphtheria.

Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.

Active immunization is not without risks, although research supports the efficacy of immunization programs as a measure to reduce the incidence of infectious disease. Paradoxically, the more successful an immunization program and the higher the immunization rate, the more likely it becomes that a vaccine will cause more illness and injury than its target disease. Thus the risk of disease is less threatening than the risk of an adverse reaction to the vaccine that will prevent it.

In an effort to immunize larger numbers of children against preventable infectious diseases public health officials and health care professionals in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam now enforce laws requiring children to be immunized before they enter school. Those children who come to school with incomplete or nonexistent records of immunizations are refused admittance until they are immunized.

Circumstances that require postponement of immunization include acute febrile illness, immunologic deficiency, pregnancy, immunosuppressive therapy, and administration of gamma globulin, plasma, or whole blood transfusion 6 to 8 weeks prior to the scheduled immunization.

Because of their potential for triggering anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons, all immunizing agents should be given with caution and only after a health history has been completed on the patient. Emergency equipment and drugs should be readily at hand in all clinics and other facilities where immunizing agents are administered.
passive immunization transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically sensitized lymphoid cells. The person immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies remain in his blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks.

ac·tive im·mu·ni·za·tion

the production of active immunity.

Active immunization

Treatment that provides immunity by challenging an individual's own immune system to produce antibody against a particular organism, in this case the rabies virus.
Mentioned in: Rabies

immunization

the process of rendering a subject immune, or of becoming immune. See also vaccination.

active immunization
stimulation with a specific antigen to promote an immune response. In the context of infectious diseases, the antigenic substances may include: (1) inactivated bacteria, as in botulism immunization; (2) inactivated viruses, as in the canine parvovirus vaccination; (3) live attenuated viruses, e.g. rabies virus, and (4) toxoids, chemically treated toxins produced by bacteria, as in immunization against tetanus and pasteurellosis. Any of a vast number of foreign substances may induce an active immune response.
Since active immunization induces the body to produce its own antibodies and specifically reactive cells and to go on producing them, protection against disease will last several years, in some cases for life.
antihormone immunization
immunization against hormones, e.g. against androstenedione for the stimulation of ovulation in ewes, is now a commercial reality and promises to be a significant management tool in intensive animal production. See also immunological contraception.
deliberate immunization
the administration of an immunogen, usually by injection but sometimes orally or by inhalation, for the purpose of producing immunity.
natural immunization
stimulation of the immune system through exposure to antigens that have not been deliberately administered.
passive immunization
transient immunization produced by the introduction into the system of pre-formed antibody or specifically reactive lymphoid cells. The animal immunized is protected only as long as these antibodies or cells remain in the blood and are active—usually from 4 to 6 weeks. The immunity may be natural, as in the transfer of maternal antibody to offspring, or artificial, passive immunity following inoculation of antibodies or immune cells.
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The effects of active immunization against gnRH on testicular development, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of beef bulls.
Therefore, passive immunization with hyperimmunoglobulin followed by active immunization starting during maintenance therapy or after cessation of intensive chemotherapy may be a better alternative to achieve permanent protective antibody titers.
These individuals may have reduced antibody response to active immunization due to impaired immune responsiveness.
It is indicated for the active immunization of adults who are at high risk of exposure to anthrax.
Rotavirus infections vaccine for infants (less than 6 months old infants) for the active immunization of liquid oral dosage form of a single dose administration, in a total of 20 000 series (estimated to contain one of the vaccination schedule in accordance with the summary of product characteristics in accordance with either two or three doses, which is enough for one child to achieve full immunization against gastroenteritis by) .
Intellect's has incorporated proprietary safety features into its ANTISENILIN(R) monoclonal antibody and RECALL-VAX(TM) technology platforms for both passive and active immunization, respectively to minimize the potential for adverse side-effects by generating antibodies that bind only the toxic beta amyloid and not the Amyloid Precursor Protein.
According to the FDA, the company has agreed to conduct postmarketing studies, including a safety surveillance study of at least 10,000 adolescents and 6,000 adults, and to complete an ongoing study evaluating safety and immunogenicity when Adacel is given at the same time as Menactra, a conjugate meningococcal vaccine approved this year for active immunization of people aged 11-55 years.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed Prevnar 13 on December 30, 2011, for adults 50 years of age and older for active immunization for the prevention of pneumonia and invasive disease caused by the 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes contained in the vaccine.
Intellect has incorporated proprietary safety features into its ANTISENILIN and RECALL-VAX(TM) technology platforms for both passive and active immunization, respectively.
A conjugate meningococcal vaccine for active immunization of people aged 11-55 years, preventing invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 (four of the five serogroups that cause nearly all cases of meningococcal disease.
Prevnar 13 is indicated for adults 50 years of age and older for active immunization for the prevention of pneumonia and invasive disease caused by the 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.
About AFLURIA AFLURIA is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B present in the vaccine.