disease

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disease

 [dĭ-zēz´]
a definite pathological process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. For specific diseases, see under the specific name, as addison's disease. See also illness, mal, sickness, and syndrome.

dis·ease

(di-zēz'),
1. An interruption, cessation, or disorder of a body, system, or organ structure or function.
See also: syndrome. Synonym(s): illness, morbus, sickness
2. A morbid entity ordinarily characterized by two or more of the following criteria: recognized etiologic agent(s), identifiable group of signs and symptoms, or consistent anatomic alterations.
See also: syndrome.
[Eng. dis- priv. + ease]

dis·ease

nosophobia, pathophobia.

disease

/dis·ease/ (dĭ-zēz´) any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs and whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. See also entries under syndrome.
acquired cystic disease of kidney  the development of cysts in the formerly noncystic failing kidney in end-stage renal disease.
Addison's disease  bronzelike pigmentation of the skin, severe prostration, progressive anemia, low blood pressure, diarrhea, and digestive disturbance, due to adrenal hypofunction.
Albers-Schönberg disease  osteopetrosis.
allogeneic disease  graft-versus-host reaction occurring in immunosuppressed animals receiving injections of allogeneic lymphocytes.
Alpers' disease  a rare disease of young children, characterized by neuronal deterioration of the cerebral cortex and elsewhere, progressive mental deterioration, motor disturbances, seizures, and early death.
alpha chain disease  heavy chain disease characterized by plasma cell infiltration of the lamina propria of the small intestine resulting in malabsorption with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss, possibly accompanied by pulmonary involvement.
Alzheimer's disease  progressive degenerative disease of the brain, of unknown cause; characterized by diffuse atrophy throughout the cerebral cortex with distinctive histopathological changes.
Andersen's disease  glycogen storage d., type IV.
apatite deposition disease  a connective tissue disorder marked by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in one or more joints or bursae.
Aran-Duchenne disease  spinal muscular atrophy.
arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease  (ASCVD) atherosclerotic involvement of arteries to the heart and to other organs, resulting in debility or death; sometimes used specifically for ischemic heart disease.
arteriosclerotic heart disease  (ASHD) ischemic heart d.
autoimmune disease  any of a group of disorders in which tissue injury is associated with humoral or cell-mediated responses to the body's own constituents; they may be systemic or organ-specific.
Ayerza's disease  polycythemia vera with chronic cyanosis, dyspnea, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow hyperplasia, and pulmonary artery sclerosis.
Banti's disease  congestive splenomegaly.
Barlow disease  scurvy in infants.
Barraquer's disease  partial lipodystrophy.
Basedow's disease  Graves' d.
Batten disease , Batten-Mayou disease
2. more generally, any or all of the group of disorders constituting neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Bayle's disease  general paresis.
Bazin's disease  erythema induratum.
Bekhterev's (Bechterew's) disease  ankylosing spondylitis.
Benson's disease  asteroid hyalosis.
Berger's disease  IgA glomerulonephritis.
Bernhardt's disease , Bernhardt-Roth disease meralgia paresthetica.
Besnier-Boeck disease  sarcoidosis.
Bielschowsky-Janský disease  Janský-Bielschowsky d.
Binswanger's disease  a degenerative dementia of presenile onset caused by demyelination of the subcortical white matter of the brain.
black disease  a fatal disease of sheep, and sometimes of humans, in the United States and Australia, due to Clostridium novyi, marked by necrotic areas in the liver.
Blocq's disease  astasia-abasia.
Blount disease  tibia vara.
Boeck's disease  sarcoidosis.
Bornholm disease  epidemic pleurodynia.
Bowen's disease  a squamous cell carcinoma in situ, often due to prolonged exposure to arsenic; usually occurring on sun-exposed areas of skin. The corresponding lesion on the glans penis is termed erythroplasia of Queyrat.
Brill's disease  Brill-Zinsser d.
Brill-Symmers disease  giant follicular lymphoma.
Brill-Zinsser disease  mild recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial infection, because Rickettsia prowazekii has persisted in body tissue in an inactive state, with humans as the reservoir.
broad beta disease  familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; named for the electrophoretic mobility of the abnormal chylomicron and very-low-density lipoprotein remnants produced.
Busse-Buschke disease  cryptococcosis.
calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease  apatite deposition d.
calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease  (CPDD) an acute or chronic inflammatory arthropathy caused by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in the joints, chondrocalcinosis, and crystals in the synovial fluid. Acute attacks are sometimes called pseudogout.
Calvé-Perthes disease  osteochondrosis of capitular epiphysis of femur.
Camurati-Engelmann disease  diaphyseal dysplasia.
Canavan disease , Canavan-van Bogaert-Bertrand disease spongy degeneration of the central nervous system.
Carrión's disease  bartonellosis.
Castleman disease  a benign or premalignant condition resembling lymphoma but without recognizable malignant cells; there are isolated masses of lymphoid tissue and lymph node hyperplasia, usually in the abdominal or mediastinal area.
cat-scratch disease  a usually benign, self-limited disease of the regional lymph nodes, caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by a papule or pustule at the site of a cat scratch, subacute painful regional lymphadenitis, and mild fever.
celiac disease  a malabsorption syndrome precipitated by ingestion of gluten-containing foods, with loss of villous structure of the proximal intestinal mucosa, bulky, frothy diarrhea, abdominal distention, flatulence, weight loss, and vitamin and electrolyte depletion.
Chagas disease  trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma cruzi; its course may be acute, subacute, or chronic.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease  muscular atrophy of variable inheritance, beginning in the muscles supplied by the peroneal nerves and progressing to those of the hands and arms.
cholesteryl ester storage disease  (CESD) a lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of lysosomal cholesterol esterase, variably characterized by some combination of hepatomegaly, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, and premature atherosclerosis.
Christmas disease  hemophilia B.
chronic granulomatous disease  frequent, severe infections of the skin, oral and intestinal mucosa, reticuloendothelial system, bones, lungs, and genitourinary tract associated with a genetically determined defect in the intracellular bactericidal function of leukocytes.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (COPD) any disorder marked by persistent obstruction of bronchial air flow.
Coats' disease  exudative retinopathy.
collagen disease  any of a group of diseases characterized by widespread pathologic changes in connective tissue; they include lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, polyarteritis nodosa, thrombotic purpura, rheumatic fever, and rheumatoid arthritis. Cf. collagen disorder.
communicable disease  a disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly.
Concato's disease  progressive malignant polyserositis with large effusions into the pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum.
constitutional disease  one involving a system of organs or one with widespread symptoms.
coronary artery disease  (CAD) atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which may cause angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and sudden death; risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and low levels of high-density lipoproteins.
coronary heart disease  (CHD) ischemic heart d.
Cowden disease  a hereditary disease marked by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  a rare prion disease existing in sporadic, familial, and infectious forms, with onset usually in middle life, and having a wide variety of clinical and pathological features. The most commonly seen are spongiform degeneration of neurons, neuronal loss, gliosis, and amyloid plaque formation, accompanied by rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, motor disturbances, and encephalographic changes, with death occurring usually within a year of onset.
Crigler-Najjar disease  see under syndrome.
Crohn's disease  regional enteritis; a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease usually in the terminal ileum with scarring and thickening of the wall, often leading to intestinal obstruction and formation of fistulas and abscesses.
Crouzon's disease  craniofacial dysostosis.
Cruveilhier's disease  spinal muscular atrophy.
Cushing's disease  Cushing's syndrome in which the hyperadrenocorticism is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone.
cystic disease of breast  mammary dysplasia with formation of blue dome cysts.
cytomegalic inclusion disease , cytomegalovirus disease an infection due to cytomegalovirus and marked by nuclear inclusion bodies in enlarged infected cells. In the congenital form, there is hepatosplenomegaly with cirrhosis, and microcephaly with mental or motor retardation. Acquired disease may cause a clinical state similar to infectious mononucleosis. When acquired by blood transfusion, postperfusion syndrome results.
deficiency disease  a condition caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, including all diseases due to an insufficient supply of essential nutrients.
degenerative joint disease  osteoarthritis.
Dejerine's disease , Dejerine-Sottas disease progressive hypertrophic neuropathy.
demyelinating disease  any condition characterized by destruction of the myelin sheaths of nerves.
disappearing bone disease  gradual resorption of a bone or group of bones, sometimes associated with multiple hemangiomas, usually in children or young adults and following trauma.
diverticular disease  a general term including the prediverticular state, diverticulosis, and diverticulitis.
Duchenne-Aran disease  spinal muscular atrophy.
Duhring's disease  dermatitis herpetiformis.
Dukes' disease  a febrile disease of childhood marked by an exanthematous eruption, probably due to a virus of the Coxsackie-ECHO group.
Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease  lymphogranuloma venereum.
Duroziez's disease  congenital mitral stenosis.
Ebola virus disease  fatal acute hemorrhagic fever resembling Marburg virus disease but caused by Ebola virus, seen in the Sudan and Zaire.
Ebstein's disease  see under anomaly.
end-stage renal disease  chronic irreversible renal failure.
Erb-Goldflam disease  myasthenia gravis.
Eulenburg's disease  paramyotonia congenita.
extrapyramidal disease  any of a group of clinical disorders marked by abnormal involuntary movements, alterations in muscle tone, and postural disturbances; they include parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, etc.
Fabry's disease  an X-linked lysosomal storage disease of glycosphingolipid catabolism resulting from deficiency of α-galactosidase A and leading to accumulation of ceramide trihexoside in the cardiovascular and renal systems.
Farber's disease  a lysosomal storage disease due to defective ceramidase and characterized by hoarseness, aphonia, dermatitis, bone and joint deformities, granulomatous reaction, and psychomotor retardation.
Fazio-Londe disease  a rare type of progressive bulbar palsy occurring in childhood.
Feer disease  acrodynia.
fibrocystic disease of breast  a form of mammary dysplasia with formation of cysts of various size containing a semitransparent, turbid fluid that imparts a brown to blue color to the unopened cysts; believed due to abnormal hyperplasia of the ductal epithelium and dilatation of the ducts of the mammary gland, resulting from exaggeration and distortion of normal menstrual cycle–related breast changes.
fibrocystic disease of the pancreas  cystic fibrosis.
fifth disease  erythema infectiosum.
flint disease  chalicosis.
floating beta disease  familial dysbetalipoproteinemia.
focal disease  a localized disease.
foot-and-mouth disease  an acute, contagious viral disease of wild and domestic cloven-footed animals and occasionally humans, marked by vesicular eruption on the lips, buccal cavity, pharynx, legs, and feet.
fourth disease  Dukes' d.
fourth venereal disease  granuloma inguinale.
Fox-Fordyce disease  a persistent and recalcitrant, itchy, papular eruption, chiefly of the axillae and pubes, due to inflammation of apocrine sweat glands.
Freiberg's disease  osteochondrosis of the head of the second metatarsal bone.
Friedländer's disease  endarteritis obliterans.
Friedreich's disease  paramyoclonus multiplex.
functional disease  see under disorder.
gastroesophageal reflux disease  (GERD) any condition resulting from gastroesophageal reflux, characterized by heartburn and regurgitation; see also reflux esophagitis.
Gaucher's disease  a hereditary disorder of glucocerebroside metabolism, marked by the presence of Gaucher's cells in the marrow, and by hepatosplenomegaly and erosion of the cortices of long bones and pelvis. The adult form is associated with moderate anemia and thrombocytopenia, and yellowish pigmentation of the skin; in the infantile form there is, in addition, marked central nervous system impairment; in the juvenile form there are rapidly progressive systemic manifestations but moderate central nervous system involvement.
genetic disease  a general term for any disorder caused by a genetic mechanism, comprising chromosome aberrations (or anomalies), mendelian (or monogenic or single-gene) disorders, and multifactorial disorders.
gestational trophoblastic disease  see under neoplasia.
Gilbert disease  a familial, benign elevation of bilirubin levels without evidence of liver damage or hematologic abnormalities.
Gilles de la Tourette's disease  see under syndrome.
Glanzmann disease  see thrombasthenia.
glycogen storage disease  any of a number of rare inborn errors of metabolism caused by defects in specific enzymes or transporters involved in the metabolism of glycogen.
type I glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency: a severe hepatorenal form due to deficiency of the hepatic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, resulting in liver and kidney involvement, with hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia, and gout
type IB a form resembling type I but additionally predisposing to infection due to neutropenia and to chronic inflammatory bowel disease; due to a defect in the transport system for glucose 6-phosphate.
type II a disorder due to deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-1,4,-glucosidase, the severe infant form resulting in generalized glycogen accumulation, with cardiomegaly, cardiorespiratory failure, and death, and a milder adult form being a gradual skeletal myopathy that sometimes causes respiratory problems.
type III a form due to deficiency of debrancher enzyme (amylo-1,6-glucosidase) in muscle, liver, or both; defects in the liver enzyme are characterized by hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia while defects in the muscle enzyme are characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness.
type IV brancher enzyme deficiency; cirrhosis of the liver, hepatosplenomegaly, progressive hepatic failure, and death due to deficiency of the glycogen brancher enzyme (1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme).
type V muscle cramps and fatigue during exercise due to a defect in the skeletal muscle isozyme of glycogen phosphorylase (muscle phosphorylase).
type VI hepatomegaly, mild to moderate hypoglycemia and mild ketosis, due to deficiency of the liver isozyme of glycogen phosphorylase (hepatic phosphorylase).
type VII muscle weakness and cramping after exercise due to deficiency of the muscle isozyme of 6-phosphofructokinase.
type VIII phosphorylase .
graft-versus-host (GVH) disease  disease caused by the immune response of histoincompatible, immunocompetent donor cells against the tissue of immunocompromised host, as a complication of bone marrow transplantation, or as a result of maternal-fetal blood transfusion, or therapeutic transfusion to an immunocompromised recipient.
Graves' disease  an association of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos, with accelerated pulse rate, profuse sweating, nervous symptoms, psychic disturbances, emaciation, and elevated basal metabolism.
Greenfield's disease  former name for the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy.
Gull's disease  atrophy of the thyroid gland with myxedema.
H disease  Hartnup d.
Hailey-Hailey disease  benign familial pemphigus.
Hallervorden-Spatz disease  an autosomal recessive disorder caused by decreased numbers of myelin sheaths of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, with accumulation of iron pigment, progressive rigidity beginning in the legs, choreoathetoid movements, dysarthria, and mental deterioration.
hand-foot-and-mouth disease  a mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, with vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet.
Hand-Schüller-Christian disease  a chronic, progressive form of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis, sometimes with accumulation of cholesterol, characterized by the triad of calvarial bone defects, exophthalmos, and diabetes insipidus.
Hansen's disease  leprosy.
Hartnup disease  a hereditary disorder of intestinal and renal transport of neutral α-amino acids, marked by a pellagra-like skin rash, with transient cerebellar ataxia, constant renal aminoaciduria, and other biochemical abnormalities.
Hashimoto's disease  a progressive disease of the thyroid gland with degeneration of its epithelial elements and replacement by lymphoid and fibrous tissue.
heavy chain diseases  a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphoplasmacytic cells marked by the presence of immunoglobulin heavy chains or heavy chain fragments; they are classified according to heavy chain type, e.g., alpha chain disease.
Heine-Medin disease  the major form of poliomyelitis.
hemoglobin disease  any of various hereditary molecular diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobins in the red blood cells; the homozygous form is manifested by hemolytic anemia.
hemolytic disease of the newborn  erythroblastosis fetalis.
hemorrhagic disease of the newborn  a self-limited hemorrhagic disorder of the first few days of life, due to deficiency of vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X.
Heubner-Herter disease  the infantile form of celiac disease.
hip-joint disease  tuberculosis of the hip joint.
Hippel's disease  von Hippel's d.
Hirschsprung's disease  congenital megacolon.
His disease , His-Werner disease trench fever.
Hodgkin's disease  a form of malignant lymphoma marked clinically by painless, progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue; other symptoms may include anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, fever, pruritus, night sweats, and anemia. Reed-Sternberg cells are characteristically present. Four types have been distinguished on the basis of histopathologic criteria.
hoof-and-mouth disease  foot-and-mouth d.
hookworm disease  infection with the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, whose larvae enter the body through the skin or in contaminated food or water and migrate to the small intestine where, as adults, they attach to the mucosa and ingest blood; symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, colic or nausea, and anemia.
hyaline membrane disease  a type of respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn in which there is formation of a hyaline-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages; extensive atelectasis is attributed to lack of surfactant.
hydatid disease  an infection, usually of the liver, due to larval forms of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus, marked by development of expanding cysts.
hypophosphatemic bone disease  an inherited disorder resembling a mild form of X-linked hypophosphatemia, similarly due to a defect in renal tubular function but usually showing osteomalacia without radiographic evidence of rickets.
immune complex disease  local or systemic disease caused by the formation of circulating immune complexes and their deposition in tissue, due to activation of complement and to recruitment and activation of leukocytes in type III hypersensitivity reactions.
infectious disease  one due to organisms ranging in size from viruses to parasitic worms; it may be contagious in origin, result from nosocomial organisms, or be due to endogenous microflora from the nose and throat, skin, or bowel.
inflammatory bowel disease  any idiopathic inflammatory disease of the bowel, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
intercurrent disease  one occurring during the course of another disease with which it has no connection.
iron storage disease  hemochromatosis.
ischemic bowel disease  ischemic colitis.
ischemic heart disease  (IHD) any of a group of acute or chronic cardiac disabilities resulting from insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.
Janský-Bielschowsky disease  the late infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, occurring between two and four years of age, characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipofuscin; beginning as myoclonic seizures and progressing to neurologic and retinal deterioration and death by age 8 to 12.
jumping disease  any of several culture-specific disorders characterized by exaggerated responses to small stimuli, muscle tics including jumping, obedience even to dangerous suggestions, and sometimes coprolalia or echolalia.
Kashin-Bek (Kaschin-Beck) disease  a disabling degenerative disease of the peripheral joints and spine, endemic in northeastern Asia; believed to be caused by ingestion of cereal grains infected with the fungus Fusarium sporotrichiella.
Katayama disease  schistosomiasis japonica.
Kawasaki disease  a febrile illness usually affecting infants and young children, with conjunctival injection, changes to the oropharyngeal mucosa, changes to the peripheral extremities including edema, erythema, and desquamation, a primarily truncal polymorphous exanthem, and cervical lymphadenopathy. It is often associated with vasculitis of the large coronary vessels.
Kienböck's disease  slowly progressive osteochondrosis of the lunate bone; it may affect other wrist bones.
kinky hair disease  Menkes' syndrome.
Köhler's bone disease 
1. osteochondrosis of the tarsal navicular bone in children.
2. thickening of the shaft of the second metatarsal bone and changes about its articular head, with pain in the second metatarsophalangeal joint on walking or standing.
Krabbe's disease  a lysosomal storage disease beginning in infancy, due to deficiency of β-galactosidase. Pathologically, there is rapidly progressive cerebral demyelination and large globoid bodies (swollen with accumulated cerebroside) in the white substance.
Kufs' disease  the adult form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, with onset prior to age 40; characterized by progressive neurologic deterioration but not blindness, excessive storage of lipofuscin, and shortened life expectancy;
Kümmell's disease  compression fracture of vertebra, with symptoms a few weeks after injury, including spinal pain, intercostal neuralgia, lower limb motor disturbances, and kyphosis.
Kyasanur Forest disease  a fatal viral disease of monkeys in the Kyasanur Forest of India, communicable to humans, in whom it produces hemorrhagic symptoms.
Kyrle's disease  a chronic disorder of keratinization marked by keratotic plugs that develop in hair follicles and eccrine ducts, penetrating the epidermis and extending down into the corium, causing foreign-body reaction and pain.
Lafora's disease  see under epilepsy.
legionnaires' disease  an often fatal bacterial infection caused by Legionella pneumophila, not spread by person-to-person contact, characterized by high fever, gastrointestinal pain, headache, and pneumonia; there may also be involvement of the kidneys, liver, and nervous system.
Leiner's disease  a disorder of infancy characterized by generalized seborrhea-like dermatitis and erythroderma, severe intractable diarrhea, recurrent infections, and failure to thrive.
Leriche disease  post-traumatic osteoporosis.
Letterer-Siwe disease  a Langerhans cell histiocytosis of early childhood, of autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by cutaneous lesions resembling seborrheic dermatitis, hemorrhagic tendency, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenitis, and progressive anemia. If untreated it is rapidly fatal. Called also acute disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Libman-Sacks disease  see under endocarditis.
Lindau's disease , Lindau-von Hippel disease von Hippel-Lindau d.
Little's disease  congenital spastic stiffness of the limbs, a form of cerebral palsy due to lack of development of the pyramidal tracts.
Lobstein's disease  see osteogenesis imperfecta.
Lou Gehrig disease  amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Lutz-Splendore-Almeida disease  paracoccidioidomycosis.
Lyme disease  a recurrent multisystemic disorder caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the vectors being the ticks Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus; usually initially characterized by lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, followed by various manifestations including arthritis of the large joints, myalgia, and neurologic and cardiac abnormalities.
lysosomal storage disease  an inborn error of metabolism with (1) a defect in a specific lysosomal enzyme; (2) intracellular accumulation of an unmetabolized substrate; (3) clinical progression affecting multiple tissues or organs; (4) considerable phenotypic variation within a disease.
MAC disease  complex d.
McArdle disease  glycogen storage d., type V.
Madelung's disease 
1. see under deformity.
2. see under neck.
maple bark disease  hypersensitivity pneumonitis in logging and sawmill workers due to inhalation of spores of a mold, Cryptostroma corticale, growing under the maple bark.
maple syrup urine disease  (MSUD) a hereditary enzyme defect in metabolism of branched chain amino acids, marked clinically by mental and physical retardation, severe ketoacidosis, feeding difficulties, and a characteristic maple syrup odor in the urine and on the body.
Marburg virus disease  a severe, often fatal, viral hemorrhagic fever first reported in Marburg, Germany, among laboratory workers exposed to African green monkeys.
Marchiafava-Micheli disease  paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Marie-Bamberger disease  hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
Marie-Strümpell disease  ankylosing spondylitis.
Marie-Tooth disease  Charcot-Marie-Tooth d.
Mediterranean disease  thalassemia major.
medullary cystic disease  familial juvenile nephronophthisis.
Meniere's disease  deafness, tinnitus, and dizziness, in association with nonsuppurative disease of the labyrinth.
mental disease  see under disorder.
Merzbacher-Pelizaeus disease  Pelizaeus-Merzbacher d.
metabolic disease  one caused by a disruption of a normal metabolic pathway because of a genetically determined enzyme defect.
Meyer's disease  adenoid vegetations of the pharynx.
Mikulicz's disease  benign, self-limited lymphocytic infiltration and enlargement of the lacrimal and salivary glands of uncertain etiology.
Milroy disease  hereditary permanent lymphedema of the legs due to lymphatic obstruction.
Minamata disease  a severe neurologic disorder due to alkyl mercury poisoning, with permanent neurologic and mental disabilities or death; once prevalent among those eating contaminated seafood from Minamata Bay, Japan.
minimal change disease  subtle alterations in kidney function demonstrable by clinical albuminuria and the presence of lipid droplets in cells of the proximal tubules, seen primarily in young children.
mixed connective tissue disease  a combination of scleroderma, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, and marked serologically by the presence of antibody against extractable nuclear antigen.
Möbius disease  ophthalmoplegic migraine.
molecular disease  any disease in which the pathogenesis can be traced to a single molecule, usually a protein, which is either abnormal in structure or present in reduced amounts.
Mondor's disease  phlebitis affecting the large subcutaneous veins normally crossing the lateral chest wall and breast from the epigastric or hypochondriac region to the axilla.
Monge's disease  chronic mountain sickness.
Morquio's disease , Morquio-Ullrich disease see under syndrome.
motor neuron disease , motor system disease any disease of a motor neuron, including spinal muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and lateral sclerosis.
Mycobacterium avium complex disease  MAC disease; systemic disease caused by infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Newcastle disease  a viral disease of birds, including domestic fowl, transmissible to humans, characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal or pulmonary, and encephalitic symptoms.
new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  (nvCJD) a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease having a younger age of onset than is seen in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and caused by the same agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Nicolas-Favre disease  lymphogranuloma venereum.
Niemann's disease , Niemann-Pick disease a lysosomal storage disease due to sphingomyelin accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system; there are five types distinguished by age of onset, amount of central nervous system involvement, and degree of enzyme deficiency.
nil disease  minimal change d.
Norrie's disease  an X-linked disorder consisting of bilateral blindness from retinal malformation, mental retardation, and deafness.
notifiable disease  one required to be reported to federal, state, or local health officials when diagnosed, because of infectiousness, severity, or frequency of occurrence.
oasthouse urine disease  methionine malabsorption syndrome.
obstructive small airways disease  chronic bronchitis with irreversible narrowing of the bronchioles and small bronchi with hypoxia and often hypercapnia.
occupational disease  disease due to various factors involved in one's employment.
Oguchi's disease  a form of hereditary night blindness and fundus discoloration following light adaptation.
organic disease  one associated with demonstrable change in a bodily organ or tissue.
Osgood-Schlatter disease  osteochondrosis of the tuberosity of the tibia.
Owren's disease  parahemophilia.
Paget's disease 
1. (of bone) osteitis deformans.
2. (of breast) an intraductal inflammatory carcinoma of the breast, involving the areola and nipple.
3. an extramammary counterpart of Paget's disease (2), usually involving the vulva, and sometimes other sites, as the perianal and axillary regions.
Parkinson's disease  a slowly progressive form of parkinsonism, usually seen late in life, marked by masklike facies, tremor of resting muscles, slowing of voluntary movements, festinating gait, peculiar posture, muscular weakness, and sometimes excessive sweating and feelings of heat.
Parrot's disease  see under pseudoparalysis.
parrot disease  psittacosis.
Parry's disease  Graves' d.
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease  a progressive familial form of leukoencephalopathy, marked by nystagmus, ataxia, tremor, parkinsonian facies, dysarthria, and mental deterioration.
Pellegrini's disease , Pellegrini-Stieda disease calcification of the medial collateral ligament of the knee due to trauma.
pelvic inflammatory disease  (PID) any pelvic infection involving the upper female genital tract beyond the cervix.
periodontal disease  any disease or disorder of the periodontium.
Perthes' disease  osteochondrosis of capitular femoral epiphysis.
Peyronie's disease  induration of the corpora cavernosa of the penis, producing a painful fibrous chordee and penile curvature.
Pfeiffer's disease  infectious mononucleosis.
Pick's disease 
1. progressive atrophy of the cerebral convolutions in a limited area (lobe) of the brain, with clinical manifestations and course similar to Alzheimer's disease.
polycystic kidney disease , polycystic disease of kidneys either of two unrelated heritable disorders marked by cysts in both kidneys: the autosomal dominant or adult form is more common, appears in adult life, and is marked by loss of renal function that can be either rapid or slow; the autosomal recessive or infantile form is more rare, may be congenital or may appear later in childhood, and almost always progresses to renal failure.
polycystic renal disease  polycystic kidney d..
Pompe's disease  glycogen storage d., type II.
Pott's disease  spinal tuberculosis.
primary electrical disease  serious ventricular tachycardia, and sometimes ventricular fibrillation, in the absence of recognizable structural heart disease.
prion disease  any of a group of fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, which may be sporadic, familial, or acquired, caused by abnormalities of prion protein metabolism resulting from mutations in the prion protein gene or from infection with pathogenic forms of the protein.
pulseless disease  Takayasu's arteritis.
Raynaud's disease  a primary or idiopathic vascular disorder, most often affecting women, marked by bilateral attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon.
Recklinghausen's disease 
Refsum's disease  an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by accumulation of phytanic acid, chronic polyneuritis, retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia, and persistent elevation of protein in cerebrospinal fluid.
remnant removal disease  familial dysbetalipoproteinemia.
reversible obstructive airway disease  a condition characterized by bronchospasm reversible by intervention, as in asthma.
rheumatic heart disease  the most important manifestation and sequel to rheumatic fever, consisting chiefly of valvular deformities.
rheumatoid disease  a systemic condition best known by its articular involvement (rheumatoid arthritis) but emphasizing nonarticular changes, e.g., pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, pleural effusion, and lung nodules.
Roger's disease  a ventricular septal defect; the term is usually restricted to small, asymptomatic defects.
runt disease  a graft-versus-host disease produced by immunologically competent cells in a foreign host that is unable to reject them, resulting in gross retardation of host development and in death.
Salla disease  an inherited disorder of sialic acid metabolism characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in lysosomes and excretion in the urine, mental retardation, delayed motor development, and ataxia.
Sandhoff's disease  a type of GM2 gangliosidosis resembling Tay-Sachs disease, seen in non-Jews, marked by a progressively more rapid course, and due to a defect in hexosaminidase, both isozymes A and B.
Schamberg's disease  a slowly progressive purpuric and pigmentary disease of the skin affecting chiefly the shins, ankles, and dorsa of the feet.
Schilder's disease  subacute or chronic leukoencephalopathy in children and adolescents, similar to adrenoleukodystrophy; massive destruction of the white substance of the cerebral hemispheres leads to blindness, deafness, bilateral spasticity, and mental deterioration.
Schönlein's disease  see under purpura.
secondary disease 
1. one subsequent to or as a consequence of another disease.
2. one due to introduction of incompatible, immunologically competent cells into a host rendered incapable of rejecting them by heavy exposure to ionizing radiation.
self-limited disease  one that runs a limited and definite course.
serum disease  see under sickness.
severe combined immunodeficiency disease  (SCID) see under immunodeficiency .
sexually transmitted disease  venereal disease; any of a diverse group of infections transmitted by sexual contact; in some this is the only important mode of transmission, and in others transmission by nonsexual means is possible.
sickle cell disease  any disease associated with the presence of hemoglobin S.
Simmonds' disease  see panhypopituitarism.
sixth disease  exanthema subitum.
small airways disease  chronic obstructive bronchitis with irreversible narrowing of the bronchioles and small bronchi. See also obstructive small airways d.
Smith-Strang disease  methionine malabsorption syndrome.
Spielmeyer-Vogt disease  Vogt-Spielmeyer d.
Steinert's disease  myotonic dystrophy.
storage disease  a metabolic disorder in which a specific substance (a lipid, a protein, etc.) accumulates in certain cells in unusually large amounts.
storage pool disease  a blood coagulation disorder due to failure of the platelets to release adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in response to aggregating agents; characterized by mild bleeding episodes, prolonged bleeding time, and reduced aggregation response to collagen or thrombin.
Strümpell's disease 
1. hereditary lateral sclerosis with the spasticity mainly limited to the legs.
Strümpell-Leichtenstern disease  hemorrhagic encephalitis.
Strümpell-Marie disease  ankylosing spondylitis.
Swift's disease , Swift-Feer disease acrodynia.
Takayasu's disease  see under arteritis .
Tangier disease  a familial disorder characterized by a deficiency of high-density lipoproteins in the blood serum, with storage of cholesteryl esters in tissues.
Tay-Sachs disease  (TSD) the most common GM2 gangliosidosis, seen almost exclusively in northeastern European Jews, characterized by infantile onset, doll-like facies, cherry-red macular spot, early blindness, hyperacusis, macrocephaly, seizures, hypotonia, and death in early childhood.
Thomsen's disease  myotonia congenita.
thyrotoxic heart disease  heart disease associated with hyperthyroidism, marked by atrial fibrillation, cardiac enlargement, and congestive heart failure.
transmissible neurodegenerative disease  prion d..
trophoblastic disease  gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
tsutsugamushi disease  scrub typhus.
tunnel disease  decompression sickness.
uremic bone disease  renal osteodystrophy.
venereal disease  sexually transmitted d.
venoocclusive disease of the liver  symptomatic occlusion of the small hepatic venules caused by ingestion of Senecio tea or related substances, by certain chemotherapy agents, or by radiation.
vinyl chloride disease  acro-osteolysis resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride, characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon and skin and bony changes on the limbs.
Vogt-Spielmeyer disease  the juvenile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis with onset between ages 5 and 10 years; characterized by rapid cerebroretinal degeneration, excessive neuronal storage of lipofuscin, and death within 10 to15 years.
Volkmann's disease  congenital deformity of the foot due to tibiotarsal dislocation.
von Hippel's disease  hemangiomatosis confined principally to the retina; when associated with hemangioblastoma of the cerebellum, it is known as von Hippel-Lindau d.
von Hippel-Lindau disease  a hereditary condition marked by hemangiomas of the retina and hemangioblastomas of the cerebellum, sometimes with similar lesions of the spinal cord and cysts of the viscera; there may be neurologic symptoms such as seizures and mental retardation.
von Willebrand's disease  an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of von Willebrand's factor, and often impairment of adhesion of platelets on glass beads, associated with epistaxis and increased bleeding after trauma or surgery, menorrhagia, and postpartum bleeding.
Waldenström's disease  osteochondrosis of the capitular femoral epiphysis.
Weber-Christian disease  nodular nonsuppurative panniculitis.
Wernicke's disease  see under encephalopathy.
Westphal-Strümpell disease  hepatolenticular degeneration.
Whipple's disease  a malabsorption syndrome marked by diarrhea, steatorrhea, skin pigmentation, arthralgia and arthritis, lymphadenopathy, central nervous system lesions, and infiltration of the intestinal mucosa with macrophages containing PAS-positive material.
Whitmore's disease  melioidosis.
Wilson's disease  an inherited, progressive disorder of copper metabolism, with accumulation of copper in liver, brain, kidney, cornea, and other tissues; it is characterized by cirrhosis in the liver, degenerative changes in the brain, and a pigmented ring at the outer margin of the cornea.
Wolman's disease  a lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of the lysosomal sterol esterase, occurring in infants, and associated with hepatosplenomegaly, adrenal steatorrhea, calcification, abdominal distention, anemia, and inanition.
woolsorter's disease  inhalational anthrax.

disease

(dĭ-zēz′)
n.
An abnormal condition of a part, organ, or system of an organism resulting from various causes, such as infection, inflammation, environmental factors, or genetic defect, and characterized by an identifiable group of signs, symptoms, or both.

disease

Etymology: L, dis + Fr, aise, ease
1 a condition of abnormal vital function involving any structure, part, or system of an organism.
2 a specific illness or disorder characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms attributable to heredity, infection, diet, or environment. Compare condition, diathesis.

disease

Alternative medicine
A state of disharmonious vibration of the elements and forces affecting humans on one or more planes of existence.

Cause of disease (alternative medicine)
• Accumulation of toxic material (e.g., through poor diet). 
• Incorrect or unbalanced diet. 
• Improper posture. 
• Destructive emotions. 
• The use of suppressive drugs and vaccines. 
• Use of alcohol, coffee and tobacco. 
• Environmental hazards in the form of air and water pollution. 
• Occupational hazards (e.g., chemicals, poor air quality, noise pollution, asbestos and others). 
• Inherited factors and predispositions. 
• Infections.  
 
Drug slang
A regional term for drug of choice.
 
Medspeak
(1) A condition in which bodily function is interfered with or damaged, resulting in characteristic signs and symptoms.
(2) The loss of a state of wellness due to either a failure in physiologic adaptation mechanisms or an overwhelming of the natural defences by a noxious agent or pathogen.

disease

Medtalk
1. A condition in which bodily functioning is interfered with or damaged, resulting in characteristic signs and symptoms.
2. The loss of a state of wellness due to a either a failure in physiologic adaptation mechanisms or an overwhelming of the natural defenses by a noxious agent or pathogen. See Acute disease, Adjuvant disease, Addison's disease, 'Aguecheek's disease, ' AIDS-defining disease, Air travel disease, Akureyri disease, Alcoholic liver disease, Aleutian mink disease, Alpha heavy chain disease, Alzheimer's disease, Anchor disease, Anterior horn disease, Asbestos airways disease, Atherosclerotic heart disease, Atypical GERD, Autoimmune disease, Bachelor's disease, Batten's disease, Behçet's disease, Best's disease, Bird handler's disease, Black cardiac disease, Black liver disease, Black lung disease, Blount's disease, Blue disease, Borna disease, Bornholm disease, Bowen's disease, Bread & butter disease, Brill-Zinsser disease, Brisket disease, Brown-Symmers disease, Bubble & hole disease, Bubble boy disease, Bulky disease, Bullous disease, Caffey disease, CAG disease, Caisson disease, Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, Canavan's disease, Caroli's disease, Castleman's disease, Cat scratch disease, Catabolic disease, Cave disease, Celiac disease, Central core disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Chaga's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Cheese-washer's disease, Christian-Weber disease, Christmas disease, Chronic disease, Chronic Lyme disease, Circling disease, Clinical disease, Coats' disease, Cold agglutinin disease, Collagen vascular disease, Communicable disease, Complex disease, Complicated disease, Congenital heart disease, Connective tissue disease, Constitutional disease, Controlled disease, Coronary artery disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Crohn's disease, Crouzon's disease, Crumpled bone disease, Cushing's disease, Cytomegalic inclusion disease, Deficiency disease, Degenerative joint disease, Delta heavy chain disease, Dense deposit disease, Dent's disease, Dialysis-associated cystic disease, Disappearing bone disease, Disialotransferrin developmental disease, Dread disease, Dual diagnosis disease, Eales' disease, Ebola disease, End-stage renal disease, Endemic disease, Environmental disease, Environmental lung disease, Ethnic disease, Evaluable disease, Exanthematous viral disease, Extrapyramidal disease, Fabry's disease, Fahr disease, Fibrocystic disease, Fifth disease, Finger & toe disease, Fish-eye disease, Foot & mouth disease, 'Foot-in-mouth disease. ', Forestier's disease, Fourth disease, Fox den disease, Freiberg disease, Fulminant disease, Fyrn's disease, G protein disease, Gamma heavy chain disease, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gaucher type 1 disease, Genetic disease, Gestational trophoblastic disease, Glycogen storage disease, Goldstein's disease, Goodpasture's disease, Graft-versus-host disease, Graves' disease, Green urine disease, Gum disease, Haff disease, Hailey-Hailey disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, Hard metal lung disease, Hartnup disease, Heart disease, Heat stress disease, Heavy chain disease, Hemolytic disease of newborn disease, Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, Hirschsprung's disease, His disease, Hodgkin's disease, Hoffa's disease, Human adjuvant disease, Huntington's disease, Hyaline membrane disease, Hydatid cyst disease, Hydroxyapatite deposition disease, Hyperendemic disease, Hypertensive cardiovascular disease, I cell disease, Iceland disease, Idiopathic midline destructive disease, Immune complex disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Interesting disease, Interstitial kidney disease, Interstitial lung disease, Ischemic disease, Isobaric counterdiffusion gas lesion disease, Japanese cerebrovascular disease, Jodbasedow disease, Katayama disease, Kawasaki's disease, Keshan disease, Kikuchi's disease, Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease, Kimura's disease, Kinky hair disease, Kissing disease, Kohler's disease, Kuf's disease, Kyasanur forest disease, Lafore's disease, Legg-Perthes disease, Legionnaire's disease, Leigh's disease, Letterer-Siwe disease, Lifestyle disease, Light chain disease, Light chain deposition disease, Limb-girdle disease, Lipid storage disease, Little's disease, Liver disease, Localized disease, Low motion disease, Lyme disease, Lysosomal storage disease, Machado-Joseph disease, Maple syrup urine disease, Marble bone disease, Marburg disease, Margarine disease, Maroteaux-Lamy disease, McArdle's disease, McCune-Albright disease, Measurable disease, Medullary cystic disease, Ménière's disease, Meningococcal invasive disease, Metabolic bone disease, Metastatic disease, Microvillus inclusion disease, Minamata disease, Minimum change disease, Mitochondrial disease, Mixed connective tissue disease, Molecular disease, Most litigated disease, Motor neuron disease, Moya-moya disease, Mseleni disease, Mu chain disease, Multiple concurrent disease, Multivessel disease, Nantucket disease, Neutral lipid storage disease, Newcastle disease, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Norrie's disease, Notifiable disease, Oasthouse urine disease, Obesity-related disease, Obstructive airways disease, Oguchi's disease, 'Oid-oid disease', Orphan disease, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Paget's disease of bone, Paget's disease of breast, Paget's extramammary disease, Parkinson's disease, Pathologists' disease, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pendular disease, Periodontal disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Peroxisomal disease, Pet-associated disease, Peyronie's disease, Phagocytic disease, Pick's disease, Pigeon breeders' disease, Pink disease, Plummer's disease, Polycystic kidney disease, Polycystic liver disease, Polycystic ovarian disease, Polygenic disease, Post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease, Preimplantation genetic disease, Proliferative breast disease, Pseudo-Hirschprung's disease, Pseudo-Whipple's disease, Pseudo-von Willebrand disease, Psychosomatic disease, Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, Quincke's disease, Ragged red fiber disease, Reactive hemophagocytic disease, Receptor disease, Redmouth disease, Red pulp disease, Red urine disease, Re-emerging disease, Refsum's disease, Regional disease, Reportable occupational disease, Residual disease, Restrictive lung disease, Rheumatic heart disease, Rickettsial disease, Rippling muscle disease, Ritter's disease, Round heart disease, Runt disease, Saint disease, Salla disease, SC disease, Schindler's disease, Seever's disease, Self-limited disease, Seventh-day disease, Sex-linked disease, Sickle cell disease, Silicone-reactive disease, Silo-filler's disease, Single-gene disease, Sixth disease, Slavic-type Wilson's disease, Slim disease, Small airways disease, Small duct disease, Small vessel disease, SS disease, Stable disease, Stargardt's disease, Still's disease, Storage disease, Storage pool disease, Tea-drinker's disease, Thatched roof disease, Transfusion-associated graft-versus host disease, Trinucleotide repeat disease, Tsutsugamushi Scrub typhus disease, Undifferentiated connective tissue disease, Uremic heart disease, Vagrant's disease, Valvular heart disease, Vector-borne disease, Veno-occlusive disease, Virgin's disease, Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Von Recklinghausen's disease, Warm agglutinin disease, Water-borne disease, Whipple's disease, White's disease, White muscle disease, White pulp disease, Wilson's disease, Winter vomiting disease, Wolman's disease, Woolly hair disease, Woringer-Kolopp disease, X disease, X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, Yellow disease, Yellow fat disease, Yellow ovary disease, Yu-Cheng oil disease, Zollinger-Ellison disease.

dis·ease

(di-zēz)
1. An interruption, cessation, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs.
Synonym(s): illness, morbus, sickness.
2. A morbid entity characterized usually by at least two of these criteria: recognized etiologic agent(s), identifiable group of signs and symptoms, or consistent anatomic alterations.
See also: syndrome
[Eng. dis- priv. + ease]

disease

1. Any abnormal condition of the body or part of it, arising from any cause.
2. A specific disorder that features a recognizable complex of physical signs, symptoms and effects. All diseases can be attributed to causes, known or unknown, that include heredity, environment, infection, new growth (neoplasia) or diet.

disease

an abnormality of an animal or plant caused by a pathogenic organism or the deficiency of a vital nutrient that affects performance of the vital functions and usually gives diagnostic symptoms.

disease

pathogenic entity characterized by an identifiable aetiological agent, group of signs and symptoms and/or consistent anatomical alterations; see syndrome

disease,

n abnormal functioning within an organism often expressed by specific bodily symptoms. This term is more concrete than
illness, which includes mental aspects as well.
disease affinity,
n a homeopathic remedy's association with a certain illness or symptom.
disease entities,
n.pl term used for illnesses to emphasize the concept that sickness is separate from the person suffering from it.
disease picture,
n depiction of all disease-related symptoms in an individual.
disease process,
n progression of the illness, both mental and physical symptoms involved.
disease(s), autoimmune (·tōˈ·im·yōōnˑ d·zēzˑ),
n.pl conditions caused by immune system dysfunction that results in cells and antibodies attacking one's own tissue.
disease, Adams-Stokes,
n.pr disease marked by symptoms such as unanticipated and repeated black-out periods, and occasionally seizures due to an incomplete heart block.
disease, Addison's,
n.pr condition in which the adrenal glands are compromised because of infection, autoimmunity, hemorrhage, or neoplasm. Symptoms include anorexia, skin bronzing, dehydration, and gastrointestinal disturbances, among others. Life-threatening form requires meticulous medical and self care.
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Disease, Addison's
disease, Akureyi,
n.pr condition marked by extreme and incapacitating fatigue, the cause of which is unknown. Accompanying symptoms can include pain as well as loss of sleep, concentration, and memory.
disease, Albers-Schonberg,
n.pr osteopetrosis form in which bones display calcification that resemble marbles.
disease, Alexander's,
n.pr variant of leukodystrophy characterized by an abnormal increase in brain size.
disease, Alzheimer's,
n.pr brain disease in which the individual gradually loses mental acuity and may become helpless. Characterized by protein deposits and abnormal tissue growth in the cerebral cortex.
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Disease, Alzheimer's
disease, Anderson's,
n.pr rare, fatal disease characterized by abnormal glycogen deposits in tissues caused by deficiency of the branching enzyme (alpha-1:4, alpha1:6 transglucosidase). Not detectable at birth, infants eventually develop liver cirrhosis or heart failure.
disease, celiac (sēˑ·lē·ak d·zēzˑ),
n metabolic disorder present at birth marked by the inability to hydrolyze the peptides found in gluten. Dietary changes can ensure full recovery. Also called
celiac sprue, gluten-induced enteropathy, and
nontropical sprue.
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Disease, celiac.
disease, chronic obstructive airway,
n a progressive lung disorder, caused by blockage of the airways, which inhibits the breathing process; includes chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, or emphysema, or combinations of these conditions.
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Disease, chronic obstructive airway.
disease, coronary heart,
n a condition resulting from poor blood supply to the heart attributable to narrowing of the coronary arteries caused by accumulation of plaque, which ultimately leads to deterioration of heart function. Also called
coronary artery disease.
disease, Crohn's,
n colon disease of unknown origin causing chronic inflammation, discomfort, frequent diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Also called
regional enteritis.
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Disease, Crohn's.
disease, Crouzon's,
n hereditary illness characterized by malformed skull as well as ocular problems including divergent squint, exophthalmos, and optic atrophy.
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Disease, Crouzon's.
disease, degenerative joint,
n a medical condition that mostly affects the elderly and is marked by erosion of the joints, cartilage loss, and changes in the subchondral bone. Symptoms include tenderness, swelling, stiffness, worsening pain after use of a particular joint and the decreased functionality of a joint. Several nutritional supplements, vitamins, drugs, botanical medicines, balanced diet, and exercise are used to lessen the symptoms. Also called
osteoarthritis or
OA.
disease, drug,
n 1. condition caused by the lengthy use of a medication.
2. collection of symptoms experienced following a homeopathic treatment.
disease, fibrocystic breast (FBD) (fīˈ·brō·sisˑ·tik brestˑ di·zēzˑ),
n common condition in premenopausal women characterized by the development of cysts of varying sizes in both breasts and the appearance of a nodular texture in the breasts. Symptoms include cydical tenderness and pain in the breast. Also called
cystic mastitis.
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Disease, fibrocystic breast.
disease, gastroesophageal reflux (gasˈ·trō··sä·f·jēˑ·l rēˑ·flks di·zēzˑ),
n condition in which the acidic contents of the stomach reflux up into the esophagus. Symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, and pulmonary irregularities. May cause damage to the esophageal tissues. Causes may include hiatal hernia, alcohol, overeating, smoking, fatty foods, and caffeine. Also called
acid reflux, reflux, or
reflux esophagitis.
disease, heart,
n any disorder that affects the heart's function.
disease, iatrogenic,
n disorders caused by medical intervention or through exposure to healthcare facilities.
disease, Lou Gehrig's,
disease, mixed connective tissue,
n a systemic disease distinguished by a combination of symptoms that are present in a variety of rheumatic diseases like polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Presence of antinuclear antibodies, muscle inflammation, swollen hands, nondeforming arthritis, and arthralgia are some indications. Corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for treatment.
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Disease, mixed connective tissue.
disease, Parkinson's,
n.pr neuro-logical disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of neurons producing dopamine. Symptoms inlcude tremors, movement difficulties, speech impediment and often dementia.
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Disease, Parkinson's.
disease, pelvic inflammatory,
n inflammation and infections affecting the pelvic region. Pain in the lower abdomen, tenderness in the adnexal region to palpitation and sensitivity to touch in the cervical region after movement are common symptoms.
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Disease, pelvic inflammatory (PID).
disease, peptic ulcer,
n ailment in which a sharply defined area or areas in the gastrointestinal mucous membranes deteriorate. Occurs most commonly in the stomach and duodenum.
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Disease, peptic ulcer.
disease, periodontal,
n inflammatory condition affecting the periodon-tium or gingival regions, progressing from gingivitis to periodontitis. It can be a manifestation of an underly-ing medical condition including leukemia, diabetes mellitus, vitamin deficiency, or anemia.
disease, psychosomatic,
n any condition in which detrimental physio-logical changes are facilitated by psychological and affective stressors.
disease, somatopsychic (sō·maˈ·t·sīˑ·kik di·zēzˑ),
n any condition in which detrimental psychological changes are facilitated by physical and physiological stressors.

disease

An abnormal process affecting the structure or function of a part, organ or system of the body. It is typically manifested by signs and symptoms, but the aetiology may or may not be known. Disease is a response to a specific infective agent (a microorganism or a poison), to environmental factors (e.g. malnutrition, injury, industrial hazards), to congenital or hereditary defects, or to a combination of all these factors. Note: illness is sometimes used as a synonym of disease, but it also refers to a person's perception of their health, regardless of whether the person does or does not have a disease.
autoimmune disease A disease produced when the immune response of an individual is directed against its own cells or tissues. It is not yet known exactly what causes the body to react to one's own antigens as if they were foreign. Examples: diabetes mellitus type 1; Graves' disease; multiple sclerosis; myasthenia gravis; rheumatoid arthritis; Reiter's disease; Sjögren's syndrome.
Batten-Mayou disease Juvenile form of amaurotic family idiocy. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the retina, which eventually leads to blindness. Syn. Spielmeyer-Stock disease.
Behçet's disease See Behçet's syndrome.
Benson's disease See asteroid hyalosis.
Berlin's disease A traumatic phenomenon in which the posterior pole of the retina develops oedema (and haemorrhages). Syn. commotio retinae.
Best's disease An autosomal dominant inherited degeneration in which there is an accumulation of lipofuscin within the retinal pigment epithelium, which interferes with its function. It is caused by a mutation in bestrophin gene (BEST1). The disease is characterized by the appearance on the retina in the first and second decades of life of a bright orange deposit, resembling the yolk of an egg (vitelliform), with practically no effect on vision. It eventually absorbs, leaving scarring, pigmentary changes and impairment of central vision in most cases, although in some cases the retinal lesion may be eccentric, with very little effect on vision. The electrooculogram is abnormal throughout the development of the disease from pre-vitelliform, vitelliform and the end-stage when there is scarring or atrophy. Syn. Best's macular dystrophy; juvenile vitelliform macular dystrophy; vitelliform macular dystrophy. Mutation in the VMD2 gene can cause adult vitelliform macular dystrophy, a condition characterized by smaller macular lesions and very little impairment of vision. See pattern dystrophy.
Bowen's disease A disease characterized by a slow-growing tumour of the epidermis of the skin which may involve the corneal or conjunctival epithelium.
Coats' disease Chronic, progressive retinal vascular anomalies, usually unilateral, occurring predominantly in young males. It is characterized by retinal exudates, irregular dilatation (telangiectasia) and tortuosity of retinal vessels and appears as a whitish fundus reflex (leukocoria). Subretinal haemorrhages are frequent and eventually retinal detachment may occur. The main symptom is a decrease in central or peripheral vision, although it may be asymptomatic in some patients. Management may involve photocoagulation or cryotherapy. A less severe form of the disease is called Leber's miliary aneurysms. Syn. retinal telangiectasia.
Crohn's disease A type of inflammatory, chronic bowel disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the bowel wall causing fever, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and weight loss. The ocular manifestations include acute iridocyclitis, scleritis, conjunctivitis and corneal infiltrates.
Devic's disease A demyelinative disease of the optic nerve, the optic chiasma and the spinal cord characterized by a bilateral acute optic neuritis with a transverse inflammation of the spinal cord. Loss of visual acuity occurs very rapidly and is accompanied by ascending paralysis. There is no treatment for this disease. Syn. neuromyelitis optica.
Eales' disease A non-specific peripheral retinal periphlebitis (i.e. an inflammation of the outer coat of a vein) that usually affects mostly young males, often those who have active or healed tuberculosis. It is characterized by recurrent haemorrhages in the retina and vitreous. This disease is a prime example of retinal vasculitis.
Fabry's disease An X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) and characterized by an abnormal accumulation of glycolipid in the tissues. It appears as small purple skin lesions on the trunk and there may be renal and cardiovascular abnormalities. Ocular signs include whorl-like corneal opacities, star-shaped lens opacities, and tortuous conjunctival and retinal blood vessels.
Graves' disease An autoimmune disorder in which immunoglobulin antibodies bind to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors in the thyroid gland and stimulate secretion of thyroid hormones leading to hyperthyroidism. The main ocular manifestations (called Graves' ophthalmopathy) are exophthalmos, retraction of the eyelids (Dalrymple's sign), conjunctival hyperaemia, lid lag in which the upper lid follows after a latent period when the eye looks downward (von Graefe's sign), defective eye movements (restrictive myopathy) and optic neuropathy, besides increased pulse rate, tremors, loss of weight and diarrhoea. It typically affects women between the ages of 20 and 50 years. Most common signs associated with the disease are those of von Graefe and Moebius. Syn. thyrotoxicosis. If only the eye signs of the disease are present without clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, the disease is called euthyroid or ophthalmic Graves' disease. Treatment begins with control of the hyperthyroidism (if present). Some cases may recover spontaneously with time. Mild cases of ocular deviations and restrictions may benefit from a prismatic correction. Corticosteroids and radiotherapy may be needed and surgery is a common form of management, especially when there is diplopia in the primary position of gaze. See accommodative infacility; exophthalmos; thyroid ophthalmopathy.
Harada's disease A disease characterized by bilateral exudative uveitis associated with alopecia, vitiligo and hearing defects. However, as many aspects of this entity overlap clinically and histopathologically with the Vogt-Koyanagi syndrome it is nowadays combined and called the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome.
von Hippel's disease A rare disease, sometimes familial, in which haemangiomata occur in the retina where they appear ophthalmoscopically as one or more round, elevated reddish nodules. The condition is progressive and takes years before there is a complete loss of vision. Syn. angiomatosis retinae.
von Hippel-Lindau disease Retinal haemangioblastoma involving one or both eyes associated with similar tumours in the cerebellum and spinal cord and sometimes cysts of the kidney and pancreas. Ophthalmoscopic examination shows a reddish, slightly elevated tumour.
Leber's disease See Leber's hereditary optic atrophy.
Niemann-Pick disease An autosomal recessive inherited lipid storage disorder characterized by a partial destruction of the retinal ganglion cells and a demyelination of many parts of the nervous system. It is caused by mutation in the NPC1 gene. The condition usually involves children of Jewish parentage. When the retina is involved, there is a reddish central area (cherry-red spot) surrounded by a white oedematous area. The disease usually leads to death by the age of two. This disease is differentiated from Tay-Sachs disease because of its widespread involvement and gross enlargement of the liver and the spleen. Syn. sphingomyelin lipidosis. See Tay-Sachs disease.
Norrie's disease An inherited X-linked recessive disorder characterized by bilateral congenital blindness. It is caused by mutation in the norrin gene (NDP). The initial ocular presentation is leukocoria. It then progresses to cataract, corneal opacification and phthisis bulbi. The condition may be associated with mental retardation and hearing defects. Syn. oculoacoustico-cerebral degeneration; Andersen-Warburg syndrome.
Oguchi's disease An autosomal recessive, inherited night blindness occurring mainly in Japan. All other visual capabilities are usually unimpaired but the patient presents an abnormal golden brown fundus reflex in the light-adapted state, which becomes a normal colour with dark-adaptation (Mizuo phenomenon). It is presumed to be due to an abnormality in the neural network of the retina. The disease can be caused by mutation in the arrestin gene (SAG) or the rhodopsin kinase gene (GRK1).ophthalmic Graves' d. See Graves' disease.
Paget's disease Hereditary systemic disorder of the skeletal system accompanied by visual disturbances, the most common being retinal arteriosclerosis. See angioid streaks; arteriosclerosis.
von Recklinghausen's disease An autosomal dominant inherited disease with a gene locus at 17q11. It is caused by mutation in the neurofibromin gene. It is characterized by tumours in the central nervous system and in cranial nerves, enlarged head, 'café au lait' spots on the skin, choroidal naevi, optic nerve glioma, peripheral neurofibromas (e.g. on the eyelid) and Lisch nodules. Glaucoma may occur. Syn. neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1).
Refsum's disease See Refsum's syndrome.
Reiter's disease A systemic syndrome characterized by a triad of three diseases: urethritis, arthritis and conjunctivitis. Keratitis and iridocyclitis may follow as complications. It occurs mainly in young men typically following urethritis and less commonly after an attack of dysentery or acute arthritis, which usually affects the knees, ankles and Achilles tendon. Syn. Reiter's syndrome.
Sandhoff's disease An autosomal recessive inherited disease similar to Tay-Sachs disease with the same signs, but differing in that both the enzymes hexosaminidase A and B are defective and it develops more rapidly and can be found among the general population. The main ocular manifestation is a whitish area in the central retina with a cherry-red spot which eventually fades and the optic disc develops atrophy. Syn. Gm2 gangliosidosis type2.
sickle-cell disease A hereditary anaemia encountered among black and dark-skinned people due to a defect in the haemoglobin. It is characterized by retinal neovascularization, haemorrhages and exudates, cataract and subconjunctival haemorrhage. Syn. sickle-cell anaemia.
Spielmeyer-Stock disease See Batten-Mayou disease.
Stargardt's disease An autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the retina occurring in the first or second decade of life and affecting the central region of the retina. A few cases are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Known causes of the disease include a mutation in one of the following genes: ABCA4, CNGB3 and ELOVL4. There is an accumulation of lipofuscin within the retinal pigment epithelium, which interferes with its function. With time a lesion develops at the macula, which has a 'beaten-bronze' reflex. It is often surrounded by yellow-white flecks. There is a loss of central vision but peripheral vision is usually normal. Myopia is very common. Management usually consists of a high plus correction for near to magnify the retinal image and wearing UV-protecting sunglasses. Syn. Stargardt's macular dystrophy. See macular dysrophy; fundus flavi-maculatus.
Steinert's disease See myotonic dystrophy.
Still's disease See juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Sturge-Weber disease See Sturge-Weber syndrome.
Tay-Sachs disease An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A which leads to an accumulation of Gm2 ganglioside (a fatty acid derivative) in the ganglion cells of both the retina and the brain. It has its onset in the first year of life, vision is affected and the central retina shows a whitish area with a reddish central area (cherry-red spot), which fades and the optic disc develops atrophy. Eventually the eye becomes blind and death occurs, usually at about the age of 30 months. It affects Jewish infants more than others by a factor of about ten to one. Syn. Gm2 gangliosidosis type 1; infantile amaurotic familial idiocy. See Niemann-Pick disease.
Terrien's disease See corneal ectasia.
Wagner's disease See Wagner's syndrome.
Wernicke's disease A disease characterized by disturbances in ocular motility, pupillary reactions, nystagmus and ataxia. It is mainly due to thiamin deficiency and is frequently encountered in chronic alcoholics. Syn. Wernicke's syndrome.
Wilson's disease A systemic disease resulting from a deficiency of the alpha-2-globulin ceruloplasmin beginning in the first or second decade of life. It is characterized by widespread deposition of copper in the tissues, tremor, muscular rigidity, irregular involuntary movements, emotional instability and hepatic disorders. The ocular features are degenerative changes in the lenticular nucleus and most noticeably a Kayser-Fleischer ring. Syn. hepatolenticular degeneration; lenticular progressive degeneration; pseudosclerosis of Westphal.

dis·ease

(di-zēz)
1. An interruption, cessation, or disorder of a body, system, or organ structure or function.
2. A morbid entity ordinarily characterized by two or more of the following criteria: recognized etiologic agent(s), identifiable group of signs and symptoms, or consistent anatomic alterations.
[Eng. dis- priv. + ease]

disease(s) (dizēz´),

n a definite deviation from the normal state characterized by a series of symptoms. Disease may be caused by developmental disturbances, genetic factors, metabolic factors, living agents, or physical, chemical, or radiant energy, or the cause may be unknown.
disease, Adams-Stokes (Adams-Stokes syndrome),
n.pr a disease characterized by a slow and perhaps irregular pulse, vertigo, syncope, occasional pseudoepileptic convulsions, and Cheyne-Stokes respirations.
disease, adaptation (adaptation syndrome),
n the metabolic disorders occurring as a result of adaptation or resistance to severe physical or psychologic stress. See also syndrome, general adaptation.
disease, Addison's,
n.pr a chronic adrenocortical insufficiency caused by bilateral tuberculosis, aplasia, atrophy, or degeneration of the adrenal glands. Symptoms include severe weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, digestive disturbances, hypoglycemia, lowered resistance to infection, and abnormal pigmentation (bronze color of the skin, with associated melanotic pigmentation of the oral mucosa, especially of the gingival tissues).
disease, adrenocortical,
n the disorders of adrenocortical function, giving rise to Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, adrenogenital syndrome, and primary aldosteronism.
disease, Albers-Schönberg,
n.pr See osteopetrosis.
disease, autoallergic,
n See disease, autoimmune.
disease, autoimmune (autoallergic disease, autoimmunization syndrome, chronic hypersensitivity),
n a disease that is believed to be caused in part by reactions of hypersensitivity of the host tissue (antigens). Includes various hemolytic anemias, idiopathic thrombocytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, scleroderma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Sjögren's syndrome.
disease, Barlow's,
disease, Basedow's,
disease, Behçet's,
disease, Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann,
n.pr See sarcoidosis.
disease, bleeder's,
n See hemophilia.
disease, blood,
n a disease affecting the hematologic system (e.g., anemia, leukemia, agranulocytosis purpura, infectious mononucleosis). Such a disease often results in lesions of the oral structures, particularly the mucosal surfaces.
disease, Bowen's,
disease, Brill-Symmers,
n.pr See lymphoblastoma, giant follicular.
disease, brittle bone,
disease, Caffey's,
disease, Cannon's,
disease, cardiac,
n a disease affecting the heart.
disease, cat-scratch,
n a granulomatous disease caused by
B. henselae that occurs at the site of a scratch or bite of a house cat. Local lesions occur at the site of injury with a regional adenitis that is out of proportion to the primary lesion occurring within 1 to 3 weeks. Systemic symptoms of infection may occur. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic tests.
Enlarge picture
Cat-scratch disease.
disease, celiac,
disease, Cheadle's,
disease, Christmas,
n.pr See hemophilia B.
disease, chronic hypersensitivity,
n See disease, autoimmune.
disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD),
n a disease marked by decreased expiratory flow rates resulting in increased total lung capacity. Patients with this condition are prone to acute respiratory failure from infections or general anesthesia.
disease, collagen (group disease, visceral angiitis)
(kol´əjin),
n a group of diseases affecting the collagenous connective tissue of several organs and systems. These diseases have similar biochemical structural alterations and include rheumatic fever, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, periarteritis, and serum sickness.
diseases, communicable,
n a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly to a well person or animal from an infected person or animal. A disease with the capacity for maintenance by natural modes of spread (e.g., by contact, by airborne routes, through drinking water or food, by arthropod vectors).
disease, congenital,
n a disease present at birth, or, more specifically, one that is acquired in utero.
disease, Coxsackie A,
n.pr See herpangina.
disease, Crouzon,
disease, Cushing's,
n.pr hypercortisolism that results from an adrenal or pituitary neoplasm. The term
Cushing's syndrome refers to hypercortisolism that is not related to an endogenous process.
disease, cytomegalic inclusion, generalized,
n See disease, salivary gland.
disease, Darier's (keratosis follicularis),
n.pr an apparently genetic dermatologic disease that also involves mucous membranes. The oral lesions are whitish papules of the gingiva, tongue, or palate. It is characterized histologically by the presence of corps ronds.
disease, deficiency,
n a disturbance produced by lack of nutritional or metabolic factors. Used mainly in reference to avitaminosis.
disease, degenerative joint,
disease, dermatologic,
n a disease affecting the skin; often accompanied by pathologic manifestations of various mucosal surfaces (e.g., the oral mucosa, genital mucosa, conjunctiva).
disease, end-stage,
n the last phase of an illness, at which point the patient's life is gravely endangered.
disease, Engman's,
disease, exanthematous
n a group of diseases caused by a number of viruses but having as a prominent feature a skin rash (e.g., smallpox, chickenpox, cowpox, measles, rubella).
disease, familial,
n a disease occurring in several members of the same family. Often used to mean members of the same generation and occasionally used synonymously with hereditary disease.
disease, Feer's,
disease, fibrocystic (mucoviscidosis)
(fī´brōsis´tik mū´kōvis´idō´sis),
n a hereditary defect of most of the exocrine glands in the body, including the salivary glands. The secretion of the affected mucous glands is abnormally viscous.
disease, fifth,
n a viral infection caused by the human parvovirus B19; spread via the upper respiratory tract, this virus impacts on children more strongly than adults. Also called
erythema infectiosum.
disease, Fordyce's,
disease, functional,
n a disease that has no observable or demonstrable cause.
disease, Gaucher's
(gôshāz´),
n.pr a constitutional defect in the metabolism of the cerebroside kerasin. This glycoprotein accumulates in the reticuloendothelial system and leads to splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymph node enlargement, and bone defects.
disease, graft-versus-host (GVHD),
n a potentially deadly condition resulting from allogenically transplanted hematopoietic cells that reject host cells in the transplant recipient. In early stages, this condition may result in lichenoid and erosive lesions on the oral mucosa.
disease, Graves',
disease, hand-foot-and-mouth (aphthous fever, epidemic stomatitis, epizootic stomatitis)
(af´thəs),
n primarily a disease of animals caused by a filterable virus that may be transmitted to humans and that occasionally produces symptoms. The human form is characterized by fever, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and ulcerative stomatitis. Skin lesions consisting of vesicles may appear, usually on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Spontaneous regression usually occurs within 2 weeks.
Enlarge picture
Hand, foot, and mouth disease.
disease, Hand-Schūller-Christian (chronic disseminated histiocytosis X),
n.pr a type of cholesterol lipoidosis characterized clinically by defects in membranous bones, exophthalmos, and diabetes insipidus.
disease, Hansen's,
n.pr See leprosy.
disease, heart,
n an abnormal condition of the heart (organic, mechanical, or functional) that causes difficulty.
disease, heart, arteriosclerotic,
n a variety of functional changes of the myocardium that result from arteriosclerosis.
disease, heart, congenital,
n a defective formation of the heart or of the major vessels of the heart.
disease, heart, ischemic
(iskē´mik),
n a heart condition in which an inadequate supply of oxygenated blood reaches the heart, resulting in damage to the heart muscle; it is usually caused by atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty plaque deposits in the main coronary arteries that leads to narrowing or hardening of the arteries. Symptoms include chest pain or discomfort (angina pectoris), ventricular fibrillation, heart attack (myocardial infarction), or sudden death. Also known as
coronary artery disease and
coronary heart disease.
disease, heart, rheumatic,
n a scarring of the endocardium resulting from involvement in acute rheumatic fever. The process most often involves the mitral valve.
disease, heart, thyrotoxic
n cardiac failure occurring as the result of hyperthyroidism or its superimposition on existing organic heart disease. Thyrotoxicosis is an important cause of auricular fibrillation.
disease, hemoglobin C,
n a disease resulting from an abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin C); occurs primarily in African Americans and causes a mild normochromic anemia, target cells, and vague, intermittent arthralgia.
disease, hemolytic, of newborn,
n a hemolysis caused by isoimmune reactions associated with Rh incompatibility or with blood transfusions in which there is an incompatibility of the ABO blood system. Several forms of the disease occur: erythroblastosis fetalis, congenital hemolytic disease, icterus gravis neonatorum, and hydrops fetalis.
disease, hemophilioid
n a hemophilic states (conditions) that clinically resemble hemophilia (e.g., parahemophila, hemophilia B [Christmas disease]).
disease, hemorrhagic, of newborn
(hem´əraj´ik),
n a hemorrhagic tendency in newborn infants occurring usually on the third or fourth day of life; believed to be caused by defects of prothrombin and factor VII, resulting from a deficiency of vitamin K.
disease, hereditary,
n a disease transmitted from parent to offspring through genes. Three main types of mendelian heredity are recognized: dominant, recessive, and sex-linked.
disease, hidebound,
disease, Hodgkin,
disease, hypersensitivity,
n See disease, autoimmune.
disease, iatrogenic
(īat´rəjen´ik),
n a disease arising as a result of the actions or words of a health care professional.
disease, idiopathic
n a disease in which the etiology is not recognized or determined.
disease, infectious,
n the pathologic alterations induced in the tissues by the action of microorganisms and/or their toxins. Some infectious diseases involving the oral tissues are herpes zoster, herpetic gingivostomatitis, moniliasis, syphilis, and tuberculosis.
disease, inflammatory neoplastic,
n See granuloma; tumor, inflammatory.
disease, kissing,
disease, Langerhans cell (Langerhans cell histiocytosis),
n a group of three diseases identified by an abundance of Langerhans cells–eosinophils combined with histiocytic cells. See also disease, Letterer-Siwe; disease, Hand-Schūller-Christian; and granuloma, eosinophili.
disease, Letterer-Siwe
n.pr (acute disseminated histiocytosis X, nonlipid histiocytosis, nonlipid reticuloendotheliosis), a fatal febrile disease of unknown cause occurring in infants and children; characterized by focal granulomatous lesions of the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Results in enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, defects of the flat and long bones, anemia, and sometimes purpura.
disease, lipoid storage (lipoidosis, reticuloendothelial granuloma)
(lip´oid ritik´yəlōen´dōthē´lēəl gran´yəlō´mə lipoidō´sis),
n group of diseases in which lipid substances accumulate in the fixed cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Included are Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, and the Hand-Schūller-Christian disease complex. Other storage diseases include lipochondrodystrophy (gargoylism) and cerebral sphingolipidosis.
disease, Lobstein's,
disease, macrovascular,
n a disease of the large blood vessels, including the aorta, and coronary arteries. Fatty plaque buildup and thrombosis formation in these vessels may lead to a myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and circulation problems in the limbs. It is often a complication of long-term diabetes.
disease, Marie's,
n.pr See acromegaly.
disease, Mediterranean,
disease, metabolic bone,
n.pl the diseases of the bone which may be attributed to cellular changes or to nutritional deficiencies/excesses brought on by dietary imbalances. These include hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, and the many diseases associated with an abnormal abundance of Langerhans cells.
disease, Mikulicz'
(mik´ūlich´əz),
n.pr a benign hyperplasia of the lymph nodes of the parotid or other salivary glands and/or the lacrimal glands.
disease, Moeller's,
disease, molecule,
n a disease associated with genetically determined abnormalities of protein synthesis at the molecular level.
disease, muscle,
n the pathologic muscle tissue changes that can lead to disease. Such changes reveal few structural alterations, and the highly differentiated contents of muscle fibers tend to react as a whole. The pathologic features that distinguish one muscle disease from another are the age and character of changes within a muscle, distribution of those changes within one or several muscles, presence of inflammatory cells and parasites, and coexistence of pathologic changes in other organs. Muscles undergo a number of degenerative changes. There are alterations in the striation in certain pathologic states caused by cloudy swelling, granular degeneration, waxy or hyaline degeneration, and other cellular modifications such as multiplication of the sarcolemmic nuclei and phagocytosis of muscle fibers.
disease, neuromuscular,
n a condition in which various areas of the central nervous system are affected; results in dysfunction or degeneration of the musculature and disabilities of the organ.
disease, Niemann-Pick
n.pr a congenital, familial disorder occurring mainly in Jewish female infants that terminates fatally before the third year and is characterized by the accumulation of the phospholipid sphingomyelin in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
disease, oral, hereditary,
n the heritable defects of oral and paraoral structures (excluding the dentition) without generalized defects; includes ankyloglossia, hereditary gingivofibromatosis, and possibly cleft lip and cleft palate. Many oral and paraoral defects are associated with generalized defects (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers, Franceschetti, Ehlers-Danlos, Pierre Robin, and Sturge-Weber syndromes; hemorrhagic telangiectasia; Crouzon's disease; sickle cell disease; acatalasemia; white spongy nevus; xeroderma pigmentosum; gargoylism; neurofibromatosis; familial amyloidosis; and achondroplasia).
disease, oral manifestations of systemic,
n the lesions in association with systemic disease, often influenced by the local environmental factors within the oral cavity.
disease, organic,
n a disease in which actual structural changes have occurred in the organs or tissues.
disease, Osler's,
n.pr See erythremia.
disease, Owren's,
n.pr See parahemophilia.
disease, Paget's, of bone (osteitis deformans),
n.pr a bone disease characterized by thickening and bowing of the long bones and enlargement of the skull and maxillae. It is represented radiographically by a cotton-wool appearance of the bone and microscopically by a mosaic bone pattern with so-called reversal lines. Hypercementosis and loosening of the teeth may be significant manifestations. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase may be an early finding.
Enlarge picture
Paget's disease of the bone.
disease, Parkinson's,
n.pr a progressive neurologic disorder for which there is no known cure that is thought to be the result of neuron degeneration in the section of the brain controlling spontaneous movement and balance. The disease causes postural changes, tremors, muscle rigidity, and weakness. Oral manifestations include difficulty in swallowing and excess salivation.
disease, periodic,
disease, periodontal
n a disturbance of the periodontium. Diseases affecting the periodontium include aggressive and necrotizing types, as well as gingivitis. Etiologic factors may be local or systemic or may involve an interplay between the two. Periodontal diseases may be involved in increasing the risk and course of systemic diseases.
disease, periodontal, etiologic factors of,
n.pl the local and systemic factors, singly or in combination, that initiate periodontal lesions.
disease, periodontal, local factors of,
n.pl the environmental conditions within the oral cavity that initiate, enable, or alter the course of diseases of the periodontium (e.g., calculus, diastemata between teeth, food impaction, prematurities in the centric path of closure, and tongue habits).
disease, peripheral vascular,
n a disease of arteries, veins, and/or lymphatic vessels.
disease, pink,
n See acrodynia.
disease, Pott's,
n.pr a spinal curvature (kyphosis) resulting from tuberculosis.
disease progression,
n the course of the disease within a patient/host from onset to resolution.
disease, psychosomatic
(sī´kōsōmat´ik),
n a disease that appears to have been precipitated or prolonged by emotional stress; manifested largely through the autonomic nervous system. Various conditions may be included (e.g., certain forms of asthma, dermatosis, migraine headache, and hypertension). See also disorder, psychophysiologic, autonomic, and visceral.
disease, Quincke's,
disease, Rendu-Osler-Weber (ron´doo),
disease, rheumatic,
n See rheumatism.
disease, rickettsial
(riket´sēəl),
n a disease caused by microorganisms of the order Rickettsiales (e.g., Rocky Mountain spotted fever, rickettsialpox, typhus, and Q fever).
disease, Riga-Fede
(rē´gə-fā´də), an ulceration of the lingual frenum of infants caused by abrasion by natal or neonatal teeth.
disease, Sainton's,
disease, salivary gland (generalized cytomegalic inclusion),
n a generalized infection in infants caused by intrauterine or postnatal infection with a cytomegalovirus of the group of herpesviruses. Manifestations include jaundice, purpura, hemolytic anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, chronic eczema, and failure to gain weight.
disease, Schūller's
n.pr See osteoporosis.
disease, Selter's,
n.pr See acrodynia.
disease, sex-linked,
n a hereditary disorder transmitted by the gene that also determines sex (e.g., hemophilia).
disease, sickle cell,
n a hematologic disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin S) that permits the formation or results in the formation of sickle-shaped red blood cells. Two forms of the disease occur: sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia. See also anemia, sickle cell; trait, sickle cell.
disease, Simmonds' (pituitary cachexia, hypophyseal cachexia, hypopituitary cachexia),
n.pr a panhypopituitarism resulting from destruction of the pituitary gland, usually from hemorrhage or infarction.
disease, Sturge-Weber-Dimitri (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis),
disease susceptibility,
n the degree to which a patient or host is vulnerable to a disease.
disease, Sutton's,
disease, Swift's,
n.pr See acrodynia.
disease, systemic,
n a disease involving the whole body.
disease, Takahara's
n.pr a form of rare progressive oral gangrene occurring in childhood and seen only in Japan. Apparently related to a congenital lack of the enzyme catalase (acatalasemia). Characterized by a mild to severe form of a peculiar type of oral gangrene that may develop at the roots of the teeth or the tonsils. Loss of teeth occurs, with necrosis of the alveolar bone. Patients become symptom free after puberty.
disease, transmissible,
n a disease capable of being transmitted from one individual to another; a disease capable of being maintained in successive passages through a susceptible host, usually under experimental conditions such as by injection. See also disease, communicable.
disease transmission,
n the method by which a disease is passed from one patient or host to another. The three most common methods of transmission are direct contact, aerosols, and vectors, such as insects.
disease, Vaquez'
n.pr See erythremia.
disease vectors,
n.pl the intermediary hosts that carry the disease from one species to another, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and rabid animals.
disease, von Recklinghausen's,
n.pr See hyperparathyroidism; osteitis; generalized fibrosa cystica; and neurofibromatosis.
disease, von Recklinghausen's, of bone
(fōn rek´linghouzenz),
n.pr See hyperparathyroidism; osteitis fibrosa cystica.
disease, von Recklinghausen's, of skin,
disease, von Willebrand's
(fōn vil´ebränts),
n.pr an inherited blood coagulation disorder attributed to a deficiency or malfunction of factor VIII. It may cause prolonged or excessive gingival bleeding.
disease, Weil's (epidemic jaundice)
n.pr an acute febrile disease caused by
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae or
L. canicola. Manifestations include fever, petechial hemorrhage, myalgia, renal insufficiency, hepatic failure, and jaundice.
disease, Werlhof's
(verl´hofs),
n.pr See purpura, thrombocytopenic.
diseases, demyelinating
n the diseases that have in common a loss of myelin sheath, with preservation of the axis cylinders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Schilder's disease).
diseases, dental, hereditary,
n.pl the heritable defects of the dentition without generalized disease, which include amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, dentinal dysplasia, localized and generalized hypoplasia of enamel, peg-shaped lateral incisors, familial dentigerous cysts, missing teeth, giantism, and fused primary mandibular incisors. Dental defects occurring with generalized disease include dentinogenesis imperfecta with osteogenesis imperfecta, missing teeth with ectodermal dysplasia, enamel hypoplasia with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica, retarded eruption with cleidocranial dysostosis, missing lateral incisors with ptosis of the eyelids, missing premolars with premature whitening of the hair, and enamel hypoplasia in vitamin D resistant rickets.
diseases, group,
n See disease, collagen.

disease

traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological or clinicopathological basis, and with a recognizable syndrome or constellation of clinical signs.
This definition has long since been widened to embrace subclinical diseases in which there is no tangible clinical syndrome but which are identifiable by chemical, hematological, biophysical, microbiological or immunological means. The definition is used even more widely to include failure to produce at expected levels in the presence of normal levels of nutritional supply and environmental quality. It is to be expected that the detection of residues of disqualifying chemicals in foods of animal origin will also come to be included within the scope of disease.
For specific diseases see under the specific name, e.g. Aujeszsky's disease, Bang's disease, foot-and-mouth disease.

air-borne disease
the causative agent is transmitted via the air without the need for intervention by other medium. See also wind-borne disease.
disease carrier
clinical disease
see clinical (3).
disease cluster
a group of animals with the same disease occurs at an unusual level of prevalence for the population as a whole. The cluster may be in space, with high concentrations in particular localities, or in time, with high concentrations in particular seasons or in particular years.
communicable disease
infectious disease in which the causative agents may pass or be carried from one animal to another directly or indirectly on inanimate objects or via vectors.
complicating disease
one that occurs in the course of some other disease as a complication.
constitutional disease
one involving a system of organs or one with widespread signs.
contagious disease
see communicable disease (above).
disease control
reducing the prevalence of a disease in a population, including eradication, by chemical, pharmaceutical, quarantine, management including culling, or other means or combinations of means.
disease control programs
organized routines specifying agents, administration, time and personnel allocations, community support, funding, participation of corporate or government agencies, animal and animal product disposal.
deficiency disease
a condition due to dietary or metabolic deficiency, including all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients.
degenerative joint disease
see degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis.
demyelinating disease
any condition characterized by destruction of myelin.
disease determinant
any variable associated with a disease which, if removed or altered, results in a change in the incidence of the disease.
egg-borne disease
an infectious disease of birds in which the agent is spread via the egg.
endemic disease
see endemic.
environmental disease control
control by changing the environment, e.g. draining a swamp, ventilating a barn.
epidemic disease
etiological disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their etiological agents, e.g. bacterial, mycoplasma.
exotic disease
a disease that does not occur in the subject country. Said of infectious diseases that may be introduced, e.g. rabies is exotic to the UK, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is exotic to the USA.
focal disease
a localized disease.
fulminant disease
an explosive outbreak in a group or a rapidly developing, peracute development of a disease in an individual. Called also fulminating.
functional disease
any disease involving body functions but not associated with detectable organic lesion or change.
generalized disease
one involving all or many body systems; often said of infectious diseases in which there is spread via the bloodstream. See also systemic disease (below).
glycogen disease
any of a group of genetically determined disorders of glycogen metabolism, marked by abnormal storage of glycogen in the body tissues. See also glycogen storage disease.
heavy chain disease
hemolytic disease of newborn
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
hemorrhagic disease of newborn
see neonatal hemorrhagic disease.
disease history
that part of a patient's history which relates only to the disease from which the patient is suffering.
holoendemic disease
most animals in the population are affected.
hyperendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady but high.
hypoendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady and only a few animals are infected.
immune complex disease
see immune complex disease.
infectious disease
one caused by small living organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoan parasites. It may be contagious in origin, result from nosocomial infections or be due to endogenous microflora of the nose and throat, skin or bowel. See also communicable disease (above).
manifestational disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their clinical signs, epidemiological characteristics, necropsy lesions, e.g. sudden death diseases.
mesoendemic disease
the disease occurs at an even rate and a moderate proportion of animals are infected.
metabolic disease
see metabolic diseases.
molecular disease
any disease in which the pathogenesis can be traced to a single, precise chemical alteration, usually of a protein, which is either abnormal in structure or present in reduced amounts. The corresponding defect in the DNA coding for the protein may also be known.
multicausal disease
1. a number of causative agents are needed to combine to cause the disease.
2. the same disease can be caused by a number of different agents.
multifactorial disease
see multicausal disease (above).
new disease
disease not previously recorded. May be variants on an existing disease, e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, or escapes from other species, e.g. the Marburg virus disease of humans.
notifiable disease
a disease of which any occurrence is required by law to be notified to government authorities.
organic disease
see organic disease.
pandemic disease
a very widespread epidemic involving several countries or an entire continent.
quarantinable disease
a disease which the law requires to be restricted in its spread by putting the affected animals, farms or properties on which it occurs in quarantine.
reportable disease
see notifiable disease (above).
disease reservoir
any animal or fomite in which an infectious disease agent is preserved in a viable state or multiplies and upon which it may depend for survival.
secondary disease
1. a disease subsequent to or a consequence of another disease or condition.
2. a condition due to introduction of incompatible, immunologically competent cells into a host rendered incapable of rejecting them by heavy exposure to ionizing radiation.
self-limited disease
sex-limited disease
disease limited in its occurrence to one or other sex. See also sex-linked.
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
a disease that can be acquired by sexual intercourse.
slaughter disease control
see slaughter (2).
sporadic disease
occurring singly and haphazardly; widely scattered; not epidemic or endemic. See also sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, sporadic leukosis, sporadic lymphangitis.
storage disease
disease syndrome
systemic disease
sufficiently widespread in the body to cause clinical signs referable to any organ or system, and in which localization of infection may occur in any organ.
disease triangle
interaction between the host, the disease agent, and the environment.
disease wastage
loss of income generated by production of milk, eggs, fiber, or loss of capital value because of diminution in the patient's value.
wasting disease
any disease marked especially by progressive emaciation and weakness.
zoonotic disease
disease capable of spread from animals to humans. See also zoonosis.

Patient discussion about disease

Q. My sister has this disease and she works at a daycare.Can this disease be airbourne? Children come to the daycare sick. Some of her co-workers were out from work because they got sick from some of the children.

A. I don't know which disease you are talking about specifically, but certainly viruses and bacterias from sick children can infect people around them, especially close contacts like workers in a day-care center. The best way to avoid infections are usually washing hands multiple time a day and after holding the kids, this also helps to not infect the other kids around.

Q. Mood- disorder? What will happen to the people who refuse treatment? I know someone whose mother got diagnosed with "mood- disorder" and now this person says that she don't have it. But all her brothers and sisters have this, and are on medication. Is there a way to save our family heritage?

A. well done, i will start to collect with the agreement of Iri possible causes for disorders (bipolar, mood, whatever you want to call it) to help people to recognize themselves. they all can start in the moment we are in the embryo. parental conflicts, aggressions, sexual behaviours, drugs, alcohol, smoking in abondance can affect us from this moment on.

Q. Whats schizoaffective disease its a mental disease

A. Schitzoaffective is a mental disease that causes symptoms of schitzophrenia and symptoms of bi-polar. patients see things, hear voices, are moody,etc.Patients go into a high mania and a low mania.

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