size (bp) Adpn R1 AM886136 F: CGGCTCATCTACCTCTCCAT 109 R: ACACACCTGCTCTTGTCTGC Adpn R2 AM886135 F: CTGGCTCAAGGATAACGACTT 109 R: AATGTTGCCTGTCTCTGTGTG INSR XM_008249177 F: CGCTACCAATCCTTCTGTCC 111 R: TAGTGCGTGATGTTGCCATT LEPR XM_008265107 F:AAGAACAGAGATGAGGTGGTGC 187 R:CCAGTGTGGCGTATTTCACG ACC XM_008271160 F: TGGCTGTATCCATTATGTCAAGCG 235 R: TGAAGAAAGGGTCAGGAAGGCAGTA CPT1 XM_002724092 F: AGGTGCTCCTCTCCTACCACGG 379 R: GTTGCTGTTCACCATCAGTGGC GAPDH NM_001082253 F: TGCCACCCACTCCTCTACCTTCG 163 R: CCGGTGGTTTGAGGGCTCTTACT Adpn R, adiponectin receptor; INSR, insulin receptor; LEPR, leptin receptor; ACC, Acetyl-CoA
carboxylase; CPT1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
The TaqMan primer/probe sets for FASN (Hs01005622_ml), acetyl-CoA
carboxylase [alpha] (ACACA, Hs01046047_ml), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1, Hs01088691_ml), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, Hs01682761_ml), nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member (NR1H) 3 (LXR-[alpha], Hs00172885_ml), NR1H2 (LXR-[beta], Hs01027215_gl), RXR-[alpha] (Hs01067640_ml), and actin, beta (ACTS, Hs01060665_gl) were purchased from Applied Biosystems (CA, USA).
When the generation of Acetyl-CoA
exceeds the capacity of oxaloacetate, the Acetyl-CoA
is then diverted to the synthesis of ketone bodies, Figure IB, which include [beta]-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone.
III] inhibition or to increased acetyl-CoA
negative feedback) or decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity, which is unlikely, owing to a strong association between lactate dehydrogenase activity and arsenical exposure (Liao et al.
in the glyoxylate cycle binds with oxaloacetate, respectively producing citrate and isocitrate.
Additionally, an increase in the enzymes present in the metabolism of fatty acids, such as Acetyl-CoA
Synthetase (ACeCS1) and Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACSL1), and an induction of oxidative stress were observed.
DMC activated AMPK and in turn decreased the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA
Overproduction of acetyl-coA
during extensive [beta]-oxidation causes the blockage of pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle: A series of biochemical reactions that serve to generate energy from the metabolism of acetyl-CoA
, which in turn is derived from the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins; also called citric acid cycle.
The fluazifop-p-butyl, an inhibitor of the ACCase enzyme, found in plastids stoma, converts acetyl-CoA
into malonyl-CoA by adding a molecule of C[O.
2000) demonstrates that an excessive ACh release, evoked by Al, is likely to increase acetyl-CoA
utilization for re-synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool and cause deficit of this metabolite in differentiated cells.
4,5) In this pathway, three molecules of acetyl-CoA
condense successively to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) (Fig.