As is common among much pastoral counseling work, an attitude of unconditional high regard and accurate empathy
is employed with all his clients to maintain a safe, confident and non-judgmental environment and to maximize effectiveness and benefits throughout.
His nine-point scale, later reduced to five points as the Carkhuff Accurate Empathy
Scale, was the scale most widely used in training counselors (Carkhuff, 1969).
Two approaches to teaching accurate empathy
to undergraduates: Teachger-intensive and self-directed.
The skillful tutor moves from understanding to action, building on genuine and accurate empathy
by helping to strengthen the writer's self-efficacy or sense of agency.
That is, the vignette is consistent with the humanistic goal of accurate empathy
, the psychoanalytic objective of identifying underlying feeling states or conflicts, and the cognitive aim of fleshing out experience to identify distorted cognitions.