accommodative insufficiency


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accommodative insufficiency

a lack of appropriate accommodation for near focus.

ac·com·mo·da·tive in·suf·fi·cien·cy

(ă-kom'ŏ-dā-tiv in'sŭ-fish'ĕn-sē)
A lack of appropriate accommodation for near focus.

accommodative insufficiency

Inability to focus the eyes sufficiently to see near objects clearly. Short-sighted people need less than normal accommodation for near; long-sighted people need more. Accommodative power declines almost linearly with age so that about age 45 most people with normal refraction suffer a degree of accommodative insufficiency. Age-related accommodative insufficiency is also known as PRESBYOPIA.

accommodative insufficiency 

Insufficient amplitude of accommodation that is unequivocally below the appropriate level for the age. It may be due to extreme fatigue, influenza, high stress, systemic medication, ocular inflammation, head trauma, thyroid disease or the juvenile form of diabetes mellitus. The condition is often associated with convergence insufficiency, general fatigue, measles, multiple sclerosis, or myotonic dystrophy, etc. It is the most common accommodative dysfunction. Patients complain of blurred vision, or difficulty in sustaining clear vision at near; this is often accompanied by a frontal headache and even sometimes by pain in the eye. A mild form of accommodative insufficiency is often referred to as ill-sustained accommodation (accommodative fatigue) in which the response may be initially normal but cannot be maintained. It is easily discovered with accommodative facility exercises. Ill-sustained accommodation may be a precursor of accommodative insufficiency. Treatment is aimed at the primary cause, but plus lens correction, and in some cases exercises such as accommodative facility training are prescribed. Syn. premature presbyopia. See convergence insufficiency; ocular headache; thyroid ophthalmopathy.
References in periodicals archive ?
They are (1) accommodative insufficiency (AI), the most common finding; (2) accommodative excess (AE) or pseudomyopia; and (3) dynamic accommodative infacility.
Abbreviations: AA = amplitude of accommodation, AE = accommodative excess, AI = accommodative insufficiency, AS/R = accommodative stimulus/response, CISS = Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, cpm = cycles per minute, D = diopter, DoD = Department of Defense, FEF = frontal eye field, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, mTBI = mild traumatic brain injury, NPA = near point of accommodation, NRA = negative relative accommodation, OD = right eye, OMT = oculomotor training, OS = left eye, P = placebo, pons = pontis, PRA = positive relative accommodation, SEM = standard error of mean, SD = standard deviation, SS = steady-state, SUNY = State University of New York, TBI = traumatic brain injury, VSAT = Visual Search and Attention Test.
Accommodative insufficiency was diagnosed when the lower limit of the expected value for the patient's age was abnormal according to Hofstetter's formula [18].
Of the patients who were unemployed (n = 4), 75 percent were diagnosed with accommodative insufficiency and/or convergence insufficiency, compared with only 33 percent of employed patients (n = 27).
Accommodative insufficiency and fatigue are characterised by reduced amplitudes of accommodation in relation to the patient's age and signs of fatigue (further reduction of amplitude) on repeated testing.
The previous literature has revealed three types of accommodative dysfunctions in traumatic brain injury (TBI): accommodative insufficiency, pseudomyopia/ spasm of accommodation, and dynamic accommodative infacility.
Patients manifesting decreased accommodative amplitude are clinically diagnosed with accommodative insufficiency [6-7].
Patients with ABI might present with accommodative insufficiency, accommodative fatigue, accommodative lag and accommodative infacility.
Indeed, it has been argued that accommodative insufficiency is the primary cause of symptoms in patients with convergence insufficiency.
If accommodative insufficiency or fatigue (Table 3) does not respond to eye exercises, or if the patient is not willing to do eye exercises, then the condition can be corrected with spectacles.
There are, of course, occasional cases where low plus lenses are indicated, for example cases of decompensated esophoria with a high AC/A ratio, or cases of accommodative insufficiency.
However, this finding might indicate that children with reading problems are slightly more likely to suffer from accommodative insufficiency compared to good readers, so it is sensible for children with reading problems to have a careful assessment of their accommodative function.