The previous literature has revealed three types of accommodative dysfunctions in traumatic brain injury (TBI): accommodative insufficiency, pseudomyopia/ spasm of accommodation, and dynamic accommodative infacility.
also found that approximately 4 percent of 160 mTBI patients were diagnosed with accommodative infacility .
Both patients with accommodative infacility improved significantly, and four of the five with reduced accommodative amplitude resolved as well.
found accommodative infacility in the population with mTBI retrospectively (~4%) using the [+ or -] 2.
They are (1) accommodative insufficiency (AI), the most common finding; (2) accommodative excess (AE) or pseudomyopia; and (3) dynamic accommodative infacility.
The aforementioned retrospective study also found that approximately 4 percent of the 160 patients with mTBI were diagnosed with accommodative infacility .
00 flipper lenses (Figure 7), whereby the patient views a near target through positive lenses, maintaining clarity of the target, and then the lenses are flipped to the negative ones requiring the patient to maintain clarity of the target through these; the number of repetitions/flips which can be performed in one minute is assessed (fewer repetitions are possible with accommodative infacility
as more effort is needed for clear focus) and is reported as cycles per minute (cpm) completed.
Patients with ABI might present with accommodative insufficiency, accommodative fatigue, accommodative lag and accommodative infacility
Even in cases without a refractive aetiology, refractive modification is often successful Prismatic Prismatic correction is occasionally used correction in exophoria, typically in reading glasses for older patients Surgery Surgery is a last resort for any case of heterophoria, and is only rarely required Table 3 Clinical characteristics of the four main types of accommodative anomalies Symptoms/test results Accommodative Accommodative infacility
insufficiency Symptoms Near blur Difficulty changing focus (e.
The most common dysfunctions of accommodation include accommodative insufficiency (underaccommodation), accommodative excess/ spasm (overaccommodation), and accommodative infacility
(inflexibility of accommodation) .