abruption


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Related to abruption: placenta previa

ab·rup·tion

(ab-rŭp'shŭn),
A tearing away, separation, or detachment.

abruption

Etymology: L, ab, away from, rumpere, rupture
a sudden breaking off or tearing apart.

abruptio placentae

The premature separation of the placenta from its site of implantation in the endometrium before the delivery of the foetus, commonly known as placental abruption. Some degree of AP occurs in 1:85 deliveries; severe AP with total separation of the placenta is an obstetric emergency seen in 1 in 500–750 deliveries, often accompanied by foetal death.

Clinical findings
Abdominal and/or back pain; irritable, tender or hypertonic uterus; vaginal bleeding (seen in most); 30% are asymptomatic.
 
Predisposing factors
Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, chronic renal disease; mechanical causes are rare (1–5%) and include transabdominal trauma, sudden decompression (as occurs in the delivery of a 1st twin or rupture of membranes in hydramnios) or traction of a short placenta.

Pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms
Local vascular injury of the decidua basalis with bleeding and haematoma formation, which causes shearing of adjacent denuded vessels, exacerbating the bleeding and haematoma; abrupt increased in uterine venous pressure transmitted to intervillous space, resulting in venous bed engorgement and separation of part or the entire placenta.

Management
Expectant therapy if foetus is immature and bleeding limited, treat shock if present; vaginal delivery if possible, or else C-section.

Complications
DIC, acute cor pulmonale, renal cortical and tubular necrosis, uterine apoplexy, transfusion hepatitis.

Definable, direct causes that trigger placenta abruptio
Rare (1 to 5%) mechanical factors such as abdominal trauma (for example, from an automobile accident or fall), sudden loss in uterine volume as occurs with rapid loss of amniotic fluid or the delivery of a first twin, or an abnormally short umbilical cord (usually only a problem at the time of delivery). Predisposing factors include the following risk factors: a past medical history of placenta abruptio (after 1 prior episode there is a 10 to 17% recurrence; after 2 prior episodes the incidence of recurrence exceeds 20%); hypertension during pregnancy is associated with up to 18% incidence (however, approximately 50% of placenta abruptio cases severe enough to cause foetal death are associated with hypertension); increased maternal age; increased number of prior deliveries; increased uterine distention (as may occur with multiple pregnancies or abnormally large volume of amniotic fluid); diabetes mellitus in the pregnant woman; cigarette smoking; and drinking alcohol during pregnancy (> 14 drinks per week). The incidence of placenta abruptio, including any amount of placental separation prior to delivery, is about 1 out of 77–89 deliveries; however, the severe form (resulting in foetal death) occurs only in about 1 out of 500–750 deliveries.

ab·rup·tion

(ab-rŭp'shŭn)
A breaking away.
[L. abruptio, fr. abrumpo, to break off]

abruption

A tearing away or separation.

ab·rup·tion

(ab-rŭp'shŭn)
Separation or detachment.
[L. abruptio, Fr. abrumpo, to break off]
References in periodicals archive ?
Linda says: "When I was 30 weeks, I realised I was bleeding and thought `here we go, another abruption.
Among the limitations of the study was the fact that only studies considered "fair to good quality" were included, and that the smaller studies did not capture any rare events such as perinatal death or placental abruption.
Tolley, III of Dugan, Babij & Tolley, LLC, argued that, after suffering an initial, partial placental abruption, Dylan McQuitty's mother did not thereafter receive complete and accurate information from her managing obstetrician to permit her to make an informed decision as to whether to choose earlier delivery of her son by cesarean section or to wait and delay delivery.
Helen and 39-year-old husband Alan's second child Manon was born in similarly traumatic circumstances this summer - 13 weeks premature - after Helen suffered another placental abruption.
Janice Lage, who examined a pathology slide containing samples of the patient's placenta tissue and testified as to the cause of the patient's placental abruption.
The instrument sets should not be used when certain conditions exist, including ruptured membranes, chorioamnionitis, placental abruption or active labor.
The main outcome for the study was a composite of fetal death, small-for-gestational-age infants, placental abruption, and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia.
Tolley was acknowledged by the Maryland Association for Justice as Trial Lawyer of the Year for 2010 for his representation of a child who suffered permanent and irreversible neurological injuries as a consequence of a complete placental abruption.
Women who had strokes were 70% more likely than matched controls to have had a pregnancy complication, defined as abruption, preeclampsia, preterm birth, gestational diabetes, in utero fetal demise, small-for-gestational age, larger-for-gestational age, oligohydramnios, postpartum hemorrhage, and stillbirth.
The couple, who have been married for three years, believe a sudden abruption in the placenta caused Xander's death.
There was no indication of an abruption or any other abnormalities of the placenta; therefore, the pathologist indicated it was reasonable to conclude that the vaginal bleeding observed by Dr.