3 m, 4-pinnate-pinnatifid to 5-pinnate, pentagonal, anadromous throughout; rachises, costae, and costules sparsely scaly abaxially
, the scales 0.
biseriale differs by pinna rachises abaxially
either glabrous or, if pubescent, the hairs sparser and more equal-sized.
, strongly sloping down to the border furrow and have three pairs of distinct pleural furrows excluding the deep anterior border furrow.
Pinna rachis scales not clathrate; pinna rachises and costules abaxially
glabrous to densely pubescent by whitish hairs ca.
90906, AAU) is atypical by subdimorphic sterile and fertile leaves, veins glabrous adaxially, and pinna rachises abaxially
with ovate scales.
3 cm wide at base, suberect-recurved to subspreading, coriaceous, canaliculate, densely and coarsely adpressed white-lepidote near the base and glabrous toward the apex on both sides, but adaxially sometimes completely glabrous, abaxially
nerved, greenish-red to dark red, margins laxly spinose, spines subtriangular, complanate, distinctly antrorse-uncinate, 1.
prominent, triangular, vascularized by simple
5 cm wide at base, ca 2 mm thick near the base, thick-coriaceous mainly toward the base, arcuate to nearly spreading, slightly channeled mainly toward the apex with a semicircular curve in cross-section to nearly flat, greenish-bronze colored, abaxially
densely and coarsely white-lepidote, nerved, adaxially densely white lepidote at base only and glabrous toward the apex, apex long attenuate-caudate, margins subdensely to laxly spinose, spines narrowly triangular, acicular and pale castaneous toward the apex, 1.
Furthermore, setae are numerous abaxially
, and at the apex of petioles, they are intermixed with some branched hairs.
Leaves erect to spreading, rosulate, 8 to 20 in number, 75-120 cm long; leaf sheaths narrowly elliptic, 4-12 x 2-4 cm, castaneous with a thin pale margin, nerved, proximally very densely covered with asymmetrical and shaggy dark ferruginous trichomes; leaf blades linear, attenuate, 3-7mm wide, involute, inconspicuously and obtusely plicate, densely ferruginous lepidote toward the sheath especially abaxially
becoming scattered dark punctate-lepidote toward the apex.
ex Poiret) Ching; however, it differs by leaves that are fiat abaxially
16 x 10 cm, subdensely and minutely white-lepidote on both sides, thinly coriaceous, abaxially
dark castaneous mainly toward the base, adaxially purplish at the apex and pale colored toward the base; blades sublinear, slightly narrowed toward the apex, 1718 x 6-6.