Patient discussion about at risk

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Q. What are the risks of taking Viagra?

Are there any risks in taking Viagra in the long term?
A1The US Food and Drug Administration identified 50 men with blindness who have taken Viagra, but who also had diabetes and heart disease, which is known to cause blindness. Therefore, it is not certain if it was caused directly from the Viagra.
The FDA informed healthcare professionals in October, 2007 that drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction, including Viagra, may increase risk of sudden hearing loss.
A2Viagra's prescribing instructions warn against use by men taking heart drugs known as nitrates and caution about sudden vision and hearing loss and other problems.
A3Although few serious side effects have been seen, recent reports (2005) suggest a possible risk of blindness from non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy. This is a rare condition in which blood supply is reduced to the optic nerve causing permanent nerve damage.

Q. What is the risk of biabetes if my father got it?

My father was recently diagnosed at the age of 55 as having Type 2 Diabetes. Do I have a greater risk of developing diabetes also?
A1Indeed, as a first degree relative of a diabetic patient you have a higher risk of developing diabetes than the average person. The risk of developing diabetes depends on many factors, both genetic and non-genetic (nutrition, weight and exercise). The risk also depends on other relevant conditions you may have (for example hypertension, elevated blood cholesterol or lipid levels).
It should be mentioned, that even for an individual whose parents both have type 2 diabetes, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes isn’t 100% but rather less than 50%.
A2 Indeed, children of diabetic patients (like other first-degree relatives of patients) have a five to ten times greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than other people of the same age and weight but without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Howeverthe risk for eventually developing type 2 diabetes depends on other factors such as physical activity, nutrition and others.

Q. Regarding risk-factor assessment?

Hello, I am……….., I heard ACSM has recently issued a new edition of its exercise guidelines. Were any changes made regarding risk-factor assessment?
AAre you fitness professional? I understand that you are very much interested in food guidelines. It can be difficult to keep up with the latest guidelines and standards. This is particularly true this year, which has seen new USDA Food Guidelines in January, a revised Food Pyramid in May and, most recently, the release of the 7th edition of ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. The good news is that the ACSM risk factors have been minimally revised. For your reference, here is a summary of what has and has not changed for the 2006 edition.

Q. What Are the Risk Factors for Developing Stroke?

My father had a stroke recently, at the age of 73. What are the risk factors for developing this?
A1Primary risk factors include:

1) smoking
2) excessive alcohol intake
3) uncontrolled high blood pressure
4) high cholesterol
5) overweight/unhealthy diet
6) illegal drugs/abuse of Rx drugs
7) known or unknown heart problems
8) diabetes
9) known or unknown vascular brain defects - aneurysm, etc.
10)family history of stroke
A2The major risk factor for developing stroke (or- CVA) is chronic hypertension. Hypertension accounts for 35-50% of stroke risk. High cholesterol and lipid levels are also major risk factors. Other factors include- obesity, diabetes, smoking and drinking alcohol, not watching a healthy diet and not exercising enough. Drug use (for example cocaine) is another risk factor. People with heart problems such as atrial fibrillation are also more suceptible.
A3Stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. Among the known risk factors for developing this are chronic hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity and more.

Q. What are the risks involved in pregnancy due to this and how to cope?

my wife is having thalassemia…….she is having anemia too she had blood transfusions often and I am worried about her and want to know ….. What are the risks involved in pregnancy due to this and how to cope?
A1I have thallassemia b minor and my hematocrit was 23 during pregnancy. I was very very unwell. If father has the genetic trait, child can be born with thalassemia and if thalassemia major occurs is as you may know very difficult to deal with.
A2I will suggest you and your wife to consult this problem with your OB-GYN specialist.

If a women or her spouse has a family history of thalassemia, they may want to consider genetic testing before becoming pregnant. Blood tests and family genetic studies can show whether an individual has thalassemia or is a carrier of thalassemia trait. If both parents are carriers, they may want to consult with a genetic counselor for help in deciding whether to conceive or whether to have a fetus that has tested positive for thalassemia.

In general, treating a pregnant woman who has sickle cell disease requires close observation. Obtain blood cell counts frequently because anemia can worsen quickly. Folic acid supplementation is recommended because of the quick turnover of erythrocytes.
A3It’s a hereditary disease and her complications will depend on the type of thalassemia she has and if she has survived till the age to get pregnant, it shows that she will have to face a lot of problems like severe anemia during pregnancy; even chances of congestive heart failure have to be reduced by regular blood transfusions. The other type of thalassemia will be less severe and may require blood transfusions.

Q. What are the risks of cirrhosis of liver?

My dad has cirrhosis and I would like to know what are the risks and how does it get treated.
A2The risks? Death. I was diagnosed with end-stage liver disease October 2007, I'm getting on the transplant list. If I have "one" more alcoholic drink, I will die. Now, that's a risk!
A3my mother died from cirrhosis of the liver,all caused from sister was born mental can do real damage if you let it.hope this helps

Q. what are the risks for breast cancer?

AMainly exposure to estrogen, the female sex hormone, without progesterone, the other sex hormone to oppose it: younger age at the beginning of menses, older age of menopause, not being pregnant at all, older age at first pregnancy, hormonal replacement therapy (somewhat controversial). Also first degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer, and specific mutations (such as BRCA1 or 2).

These are the major ones. You may find more info here:
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