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vascular canals in compact bone that, unlike those of the haversian system, are not surrounded by concentric lamellae of bone; they run for the most part transversely, perforating the lamellae of the haversian system, and connect the canals of that system.
canal(ka-nal') [L. canalis, channel]
A connective tissue channel, through which the femoral artery, femoral vein, and saphenous nerve pass inside the lower half of the inner thigh between the femoral triangle and the popliteal fossa. The channel is surrounded by the vastus medialis, adductor longus, and adductor magnus muscles, and it is covered by the sartorius muscle.Synonym: Hunter canal; subsartorial canal
Alcock canalPudendal canal. See: Alcock canal
The digestive tract from the mouth through the anus.
In the skull, any of the two or three channels leading from small holes along the middle of the infratemporal surface of the maxilla. These channels transmit the posterior superior alveolar blood vessels and nerves, which supply the upper molars and their surrounding gums.Synonym: superior alveolar canal ; maxillary canal
The 4 cm long terminal section of the large intestine, beginning where the rectum passes downward and forward through the pelvic diaphragm and ending in the anus. The entire length of the anal canal is surrounded by sphincter muscles, and the canal remains closed except during defecation and passage of flatus.See: illustration
Arnold canalSee: Arnold, Friedrich
In the embryo, the segment of the heart tube between the developing atria and ventricles. This segment will eventually give rise to the mitral and tricuspid valves and to portions of the interatrial and interventricular septa.
Either the external auditory canal or the internal auditory canal.See: external auditory canal ; internal auditory canal
The passageway comprising the cervix, vagina, and vulva, through which the products of conception, including the fetus, pass during labor and birth.
bony semicircular canal
Any of several canals located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts (superior, posterior, and lateral) that open into the vestibule. They are enclosed within the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
The channel followed by the internal carotid artery (and its accompanying sympathetic nerves) as it passes through the bone of the skull. The oval external opening is in the petrous portion of the temporal bone just in front of the opening to the jugular canal. The carotid canal runs forward until, passing over the foramen lacerum, it turns up and opens into the middle cranial fossa along a groove at the base of the sella turcica.
central canal of bone
The Haversian canal of an osteon.
central canal of neural tube
The central lumen of the neural tube of the embryo. It is lined by the foot-processes of radial glial cells. Later, the central canal of the neural tube will become the ependyma-lined ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the medulla of the brainstem.
central canal of spinal cord
The remnant of the lumen of the neural tube. Largely obliterated in the adult spinal cord.
The passageway through the center of the cervix.
Cloquet canalSee: Cloquet canal
Within the petrous portion of the temporal bone of the skull, the spiral space forming the outer wall the cochlea. This canal is a short spiral bony tube. Three fluid-filled, membranous tubes spiral fill the cochlear canal: the cochlear duct, containing the auditory receptor cells (the organ of Corti), is sandwiched between the scala vestibuli above and the scala tympani below. The cochlear canal is one segment of an interconnected series of bone cavities called the bony (osseus) labyrinth, which encloses the vestibulo-cochlear sensory apparatus of the inner ear. See: cochlea
A hole in the occipital bone of the skull for passage of the emissary vein from the transverse sinus. It opens anterior to the occipital condyle.
canal of CortiSee: Corti
In the embryo, a temporary tubular space in the cartilage of the base of the sphenoid bone, enclosing the developing pituitary gland.
Any of the channels in the maxilla (alveolar canals) or mandible (mandibular canals) through which pass the nerves and blood vessels to the teeth and the surrounding gums.
Dorello canalSee: Dorello canal
Either of two grooves running transversely across the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone to the cribriform plate and lying between the ethmoid and frontal bones. The anterior ethmoidal canal transmits the anterior ethmoidal vessels and the nasociliary nerve; the posterior ethmoidal canal transmits the posterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve.
external auditory canal
The open, tubular passageway from the pinna (auricle) of the ear to the tympanic membrane (ear drum). It is lined by thin, sensitive skin, which continues as the outer covering of the tympanic membrane. Its outer edge is a channel in the temporal bone of the skull. The cartilage inside the pinna extends as a middle layer between the skin and the bone in the first third of the canal.See: external auditory meatus
The tunnel followed by the facial nerve through the temporal bone. Inside the skull, the facial canal begins in the internal auditory canal; outside the skull, it ends at the stylomastoid foramen. Within the bone, the canal makes two bends as it bypasses the inner ear. The first bend houses the geniculate ganglion, which sends sensory axons toward the brainstem as the intermediate component of the facial nerve. Near the second bend, the facial nerve gives off a branch to the stapedius muscle. In the final segment of the canal, the facial nerve gives off the chorda tympani nerve; thus, only motor axons remain as the facial nerve exits the canal.
A canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The facial nerve passes through it.Synonym: aqueductus Fallopii
1. The medullary (central) canal inside the shaft of the femoral bone.
2. The most medial compartment of the femoral sheath. A femoral hernia is a bulge of intestine that has been pushed down into the femoral canal through its upper opening, the femoral ring.
A longitudinal groove extending from the esophagus to the pylorus on the inner surface of the stomach following the lesser curvature.
Guyon canalSee: Guyon canal
In compact bone, tiny channels in the center of concentric cylinders of mineralized tissue. Nerves and blood vessels run through these channels, all of which interconnect. Each Haversian canal is the center of an osteon. See: bone; Havers, Clopton
Huguier canalSee: Huguier canal
Hunter canalAdductor canal. See: Hunter canal
Huschke canalSee: Huschke, Emil
Canalis hyaloideus; a canal in the vitreous body of the eye extending from the optic papilla to the central posterior surface of the lens. It serves as a lymph channel. In the fetus the canal contains the hyaloid artery. This normally disappears 6 weeks before birth.
A hole in the skull, just above the foramen magnum in the occipital bone, through which the hypoglossal nerve and a branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery pass.Synonym: anterior condyloid foramen
inferior alveolar canalMandibular canal.
An anterior-posterior bony canal or groove in the floor of the orbit. The infraorbital artery and nerve run in this canal, which opens anteriorly as the infraorbital foramen.
A tube made of the transversalis fascia and the aponeuroses of the abdominal wall muscles just above the inguinal ligament. The inguinal canal is a cylindrical passageway 4 cm long from the retroperitoneal space to the subcutaneous fascia. It begins at the deep (internal) inguinal ring inside the abdominal wall, approx. halfway between the anterior superior spine of the iliac bone and the pubic symphysis, 0.50 in (1.25 cm) above the inguinal ligament. It continues downward and toward the midline, and it ends at the superficial (external) inguinal ring under the skin at the pubic crest. The inguinal canal contains an outpouching of the peritoneum, blood and lymph vessels, and the ilioinguinal nerve. In males, it contains the spermatic cord; in females, it contains the round ligament of the uterus.illustration
interdental canalHirschfeld canal.
internal auditory canal
The tunnel in the petrous portion of the temporal bone through which the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves exit the cranial cavity.Synonym: meatus acusticus internus
The alimentary canal from the stomach to the anus.
lacrimal canalNasolacrimal canal.
canal of Lambert
Any of several bronchoalveolar communications in the lung. These may help to prevent atelectasis.
The channel inside the body of the mandible through which the inferior alveolar blood vessels and nerve pass to supply the lower teeth and gums. Synonym: inferior alveolar canal
mandibular incisive canal
The final segment of the mandibular canal, containing the nerves and blood vessels for the lower incisors and surrounding gums.
maxillary canalAlveolar canal.
maxillary incisive canal
One of the two channels connecting the incisive fossa (incisive foramen), in the palate behind the upper incisors, and the nasal floor. It contains the nasal terminations of the greater palatine artery and nasopalatine nerve.
The marrow cavity of long bones.
membranous semicircular canal
A semicircular duct.See: semicircular duct
A small bony passageway in the skull inside the medial wall of the orbit between the lacrimal bone and the maxilla. Its top opens into the nasolacrimal fossa, a bony depression in lower medial corner of the front of the orbit. Its bottom opens into the nasal cavity under the inferior nasal concha. It contains the membranous nasolacrimal duct, which drains tears from the eye. Synonym: lacrimal canal
A temporary canal in the vertebrate embryo between the neural and intestinal tubes. It is the temporary communication between cavities of the yolk sac and the amnion.
Nuck canalSee: Nuck canal
In bone, a tiny tubular space filled by vessels and nerves running to and from the osteons and the other basic metabolic and growth units.See: bone
An opening in the obturator membrane of the hip bone that transmits the obturator vessels and nerve.
In the skull, a roughly spherical opening through the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone connecting the middle cranial fossa and the superior-medial edge of the back of the orbit. The optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery pass through the optic canal.Synonym: optic foramen
greater palatine canal
In the skull, a thin vertical channel between the nasal surface of the maxillary bone and the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone that contains the greater (anterior) and lesser (middle and posterior) palatine nerves and the greater and lesser palatine vessels.
pericardioperitoneal canalPleuroperitoneal canal.
Petit canalSee: Petit, François Pourfour du
A canal between the sphenoid and palatine bones that transmits branches of the sphenopalatine vessels.
A tubular space extending ventrally and laterally from the coelom inside each half of the embryo and destined to form the pleural cavity for the lung.Synonym: pericardioperitoneal canal
The connective tissue (a continuation of Glisson capsule) and its contained vessels (interlobular branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct and lymphatic vessel) located between adjoining liver lobules.
In the skull, a small horizontal channel beginning inside the canal of the foramen lacerum (in the middle cranial fossa), passing through the root of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, and opening into the pterygopalatine fossa behind and below the medial wall of the orbit. It transmits the pterygoid nerve and vessels to the pterygopalatine ganglion.Synonym: vidian canal
Canalis palatinus major, a canal between the maxillary and palatine bones that transmits the descending palatine nerves and artery.
A tunnel inside the obturator fascia along the lower pelvic surface of the internal obturator muscle and running along the inner lower edge of the ramus of the ischium. It contains the pudendal nerve and vessels.Synonym: Alcock canal
pulp canalRoot canal (1).
The cavity inside constricted region of the pyloric segment of the stomach that opens through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum.
Rivinus canalSee: Rivinus, August Quirinus
1. The channel inside the tooth that extends from the pulp chamber to the apical foramen. It contains arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels, and sensory nerve endings. Synonym: pulp canal
2. Colloquially, the procedure for preserving a tooth by removing its diseased pulp cavity.
The continuation of the vertebral canal into the sacrum.
canal of SchlemmSee: canal of Schlemm
One of the three perpendicular tubular hollows, each forming two-thirds of a circle, that extend from the vestibule of the labyrinth in the inner ear. The semicircular canals are the bony shells that contain the similarly shaped semicircular ducts, membranous sensory organs that detect the angular acceleration and the orientation of the head.
spinal canalVertebral canal.
spiral canal of the cochleaCochlear spiral canal.
spiral canal of the modiolus
Canalis spiralis modioli; a series of irregular spaces that follow the course of the attached margin of the osseous spiral lamina to the modiolus. They transmit filaments of the cochlear nerve and blood vessels. The spiral ganglion lies in the spiral canal.
subsartorial canalAdductor canal.
superior alveolar canalAlveolar canal.
The cavity of the uterus.
The cavity of the cervix of the uterus.
The combined cavities of the uterus and vagina.
The cavity of the vagina. The vaginal walls can expand but are normally in contact with each other; thus, this cavity is a potential space.
The continuous channel through the central foramina in the vertebrae, which contains the spinal cord and the spinal nerve roots in their meningeal coverings.Synonym: spinal canal
vidian canalPterygoid canal.
Volkmann canalsSee: Volkmann canals
Volkmann,Alfred W., German physiologist, 1800-1877.
Volkmann canals - vascular canals in compact bone that are not surrounded by concentric lamellae of bone.