upper respiratory tract infection

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upper respiratory tract infection

upper respiratory tract infection

URI Infectious disease A nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, the prototypic URI is the common cold; flu/influenza is a systemic illness involving the URT and is differentiated from other URIs Clinical 1–3 days after exposure to pathogen, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, conjunctivitis–with adenovirus infections; sore throat with pain on swallowing, fever, absence of cough, and exposure to a person with streptococcal pharyngitis in the prior 2 wks support Dx of GABHS-related pharyngitis; Pts with acute sinusitis often have fever for > 1 wk, facial pain–especially unilateral, maxillary toothache, headache, and excessive purulent nasal discharge; hoarseness suggests laryngitis; difficulty in swallowing oral secretions and stridor should raise suspicion for epiglottitis or pharyngeal abscess; influenza presents as a sudden illness characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgia, dry cough, with lingering fatigue and malaise; elderly patients may also present with confusion and somnolence Physical exam Common cold–nasal voice, macerated skin over the nostrils, inflamed nasal mucosa; GABHS-related pharyngitis–pharyngeal erythema/exudate, palatal petechiae–popularly, “doughnut lesions,” tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, and occasionally a scarlatiniform rash; pharyngeal or palatal vesicles and ulcers (herpangina) suggest enteroviral or herpetic pharyngitis; pharyngeal exudates are most common in GABHS-related pharyngitis, but can be seen with infectious mononucleosis due to EBV, acute retroviral syndrome, candidal infections, diphtheria; swelling, redness, and tenderness overlying affected sinuses and abnormal transillumination are specific for, but not commonly seen in acute sinusitis; generalized lymphadenopathy with sore throat, fever, and rash should raise the possibility of a systemic viral infection–eg, EBV, CMV, HIV; Pts with influenza appear toxic and may have pulmonary rhonchi and diffuse myalgias Types Pharyngitis, sinusitis, laryngitis/epiglottitis, otitis Diagnosis Because viruses cause most URIs, the diagnostic role of lab and radiologic studies is limited; rapid antigen detection of influenza virus on a nasopharyngeal swab is indicated in cases where specific antiviral therapy is recommended; a rapid antigen detection test is also available for adenovirus, RSV, and parainfluenza virus; serologic tests for viruses that can cause a mononucleosis-type illness should be done in the correct clinical setting; influenza serologies have only epidemiologic value and should not be used for clinical care; pharyngeal swab for rapid antigen detection of GABHS is 80% to 95% sensitive and should be considered in all patients in whom GABHS-related pharyngitis is suspected; pharyngeal culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and should be done if GABHS-related pharyngitis is highly likely on clinical grounds but in which the rapid antigen detection test is negative; cultures obtained by paranasal sinus puncture should be reserved for only severely ill patients with acute sinusitis and intracranial or orbital complications; blood cultures should be done in severely ill Pts or in those with epiglottitis or a pharyngeal abscess Management Symptomatic to relieve the most prominent Sx; rest, ↑ fluid intake are measures recommended for all URIs. Cf Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup. ), Common cold, Epiglottitis, Otitis media. Viral URI

cold

(kōld)
1. A low temperature; the sensation produced by a temperature notably below an accustomed norm or a comfortable level.
2. Popular term for a virus infection involving the upper respiratory tract and characterized by congestion of the mucosa, watery nasal discharge, and general malaise, with a duration of 3-5 days.
See also: rhinitis
Synonym(s): common cold, frigid (1) , upper respiratory infection, upper respiratory tract infection.

upper respiratory tract infection

Any infection of the nose, throat, sinuses or LARYNX such as the common cold, sore throat (pharyngitis), tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and croup. The cumbersome phrase is often abbreviated to URTI.
References in periodicals archive ?
Wellmune, an immune strengthening baker's yeast beta-glucan, helps to keep children significantly healthier by decreasing episodes of common childhood illnesses and symptoms of illness such as upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (URU), according to a study conducted by H&J CRO International Inc.
2002), because of the demonstrated increased self-reported upper respiratory tract infection in elite, compared to recreational athletes (Gleeson et al.
5%, n=210) presented with a complaint of recurrent upper respiratory tract infection.
Upper respiratory tract infections were reported by only 8% of subjects in Wellmune WGP group at week 4, versus 24% of placebo subjects.
To the Editor: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a common etiologic agent of upper respiratory tract infections and is associated with symptoms such as asthma and wheezing.
She notes that sinusitis, most sore throats, bronchitis, runny noses and the common cold are all upper respiratory tract infections usually caused by viruses that cannot be cured with antibiotics.
Risk of harm by not treating upper respiratory tract infections
A single dose of buckwheat honey before bedtime provided the greatest relief from cough and sleep difficulty in children with upper respiratory tract infections, compared with no treatment and over-the-counter cough medicines using dextromethorphan, according to a report in a recent issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
General practitioners should not base their prescribing for sore throat, otitis media, or upper respiratory tract infections on a fear of serious complications.
In order to gain further experience regarding the tolerability of Pinimenthol[R] ointment (1) in adolescents ([greater than or equal to] 12 years) and adults suffering from upper respiratory tract infections, a post-marketing observational study was performed.
For upper respiratory tract infections, pediatricians most often prescribed penicillins (in about 42% of prescriptions), followed by macrolides (about 22%) and beta-lactamase inhibitors (16%).
In 2002, the same team found that such pollution increased the risk for asthma and upper respiratory tract infections in young children.

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