Universal Precautions


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U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-ver'săl prē-kaw'shŭnz),
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens. In December 1991, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, incorporating universal precautions and imposing detailed requirements on employers of health care workers, including engineering controls, provision of protective barrier devices, standardized labeling of biohazards, mandatory training of employees in Universal Precautions, management of accidental parenteral exposure incidents, and availability to employees of immunization against hepatitis B.

The principle underlying universal precautions is that the blood and certain other body fluids of all recipients of health care are to be considered potentially infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens. Universal precautions apply to blood, unfixed tissues (except intact skin), cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal secretions, but not to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomitus unless these materials contain visible blood. Specific precautions are prescribed with respect to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, surgery, invasive diagnostic procedures, obstetrics, renal dialysis, dentistry, clinical laboratories, morgues, and morticians' services. Barrier devices such as gloves, gowns, waterproof aprons, masks, and protective eyewear are required in certain settings, to prevent exposure to blood and other biologically hazardous materials. The OSHA standard requires glove wear for phlebotomy and intraoral examinations and manipulations. Standards are also imposed for laundry, cleaning of surfaces, and disposal of contaminated wastes. Special precautions are advised for handling needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or devices after use. Immunization with HBV vaccine is recommended as an important adjunct to universal precautions for health care workers exposed to blood. Universal precautions are intended to supplement, not replace, routine procedures for infection control such as handwashing and using gloves to prevent gross contamination of the hands. Implementation of universal precautions does not eliminate the need for other category- or disease-specific isolation precautions, such as enteric precautions for infectious diarrhea and respiratory isolation for pulmonary tuberculosis.

Universal Precautions

precautions designed preventing the transmission of blood-borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and other blood-borne pathogens when first aid or health care is provided. Under Universal Precautions, blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious. Universal Precautions were initially developed in 1987 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and in 1989 by the Bureau of Communicable Disease Epidemiology in Canada. The Precautions include specific recommendations for use of gloves, gowns, masks, and protective eyewear when contact with blood or body secretions containing blood is anticipated. Compare Standard Precautions, transmission-based precautions.
A method of infection control—recommended by the CDC—in which all human blood, certain body fluids, as well as fresh tissues and cells of human origin are handled as if they are known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and/or other blood-borne pathogens

universal precautions

Infectious disease A method of infection control–recommendations issued by CDC–in which all human blood, certain body fluids, as well as fresh tissues and cells of human origin, are treated as if known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and/or other blood-borne pathogens. See Precautions, Reverse precautions. Cf Body substance isolation.

U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-vĕr'săl prĕ-kaw'shŭnz)
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens. In December 1991, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, incorporating universal precautions and imposing detailed requirements on employers of health care workers, including engineering controls, provision of protective barrier devices, standardized labeling of biohazards, mandatory training of employees in the Universal Precautions, management of accidental parenteral exposure incidents, and availability to employees of immunization against hepatitis B virus.

u·ni·ver·sal pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-vĕr'săl prē-kaw'shŭnz)
Generally, acting under the assumption that all bodily fluids may be contaminated. See: Universal Precautions.

U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yūni-vĕrsăl prĕ-kawshŭnz)
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens.

universal precautions,

n.pl 1. approaches to infection control designed to prevent transmission of bloodborne diseases, such as AIDS and hepatitis B in health care settings. Universal precautions were initially developed in 1987 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and in 1989 by the Bureau of Communicable Disease Epidemiology in Canada. The guidelines include specific recommendations for use of gloves and masks and protective eyewear when contact with blood or body secretions containing blood or blood elements is anticipated. In 1996 the CDC expanded the concept and changed the term to
standard precautions. See also
standard precautions. n.pl 2. the protocols used to maintain an aseptic field and to prevent cross-contamination and cross-infection between health care providers, between health care providers and patients, and between patients. These include, but are not limited to, the sterilization of instruments and goods; the isolation and disinfection of the immediate clinical environment; the use of sterile disposables; scrubbing, masking, gowning, and gloving; and the proper disposal of contaminated waste.
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This whole concept of universal precautions is something we talk about.

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