traumatic brain injury

(redirected from Traumatic brain injuries)
Also found in: Dictionary.

traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Traumatic brain injuries were the most common type of injury for drivers and passengers, the study found.
8 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths related to traumatic brain injuries occurred in the U.
In 2010, the CDC estimates that the direct and indirect medical costs of traumatic brain injuries reached $76.
Current literature suggests that mild traumatic brain injuries cause changes in brain tissues and have important long-term consequences on cognitive function.
Elderly veterans who had experienced traumatic brain injuries were more than twice as likely to develop dementia, according to a study presented at the Alzheimer's Association's 2011 conference in Paris.
Worldwide, traumatic brain injuries are a major cause of physical impairment, social disruption and death.
Rigid pathways in brain cell connections buckle and break when stretched, scientists report, a finding that could aid in the understanding of exactly what happens when traumatic brain injuries occur.
New prediction rules derived in a large prospective study of children and adolescents could identify which head trauma patients are at very low risk of serious traumatic brain injuries and thus do not routinely need a CT scan.
Robin Barbier is a project coordinator with the Teaching Research Institute-Eugene, a division of Western Oregon University that specializes in research and teacher training to improve school and adult outcomes for youths with traumatic brain injuries.
In recent years, survival rates of soldiers who sustained blast-related, traumatic brain injuries, which are accompanied by or result in visual impairment, have increased because advances in technology, medicine, and transportation-such as improved body armor, advances and immediacy in emergency medical care, and the development of faster transportation off the battlefield to medical facilities--allow soldiers to survive life-threatening injuries more often than in previous armed conflicts (Goodrich, 2007; Lew, 2005).
4 million traumatic brain injury-related deaths, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits that occur each year in the United States are concussions or mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBIs) (1-5).
6) The majority of traumatic brain injuries are the result of motor vehicle, bicycle, or pedestrian-related accidents, followed by falls, violence-related incidents, and sports-recreation injuries.

Full browser ?