sedative

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sedative

 [sed´ah-tiv]
1. allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness.
2. an agent that does this. The usual mode of action is depression of the central nervous system, which tends to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. Sedatives are distinct from tranquilizers, which also have a calming effect but unlike sedatives usually do not suppress bodily reactions. Sedatives may be classified according to the organ most affected, such as cardiac, gastric, and so on. Called also calmative.



The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help a patient go to sleep, but it does not put him to sleep. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics (some drugs act as sedatives in small amounts and as hypnotics in large amounts). The barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are the best known sedatives and are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives include paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. Sedatives are useful in the treatment of any condition in which rest and relaxation are important to recovery. Some sedatives are also useful in treatment of convulsive disorders or epilepsy and in counteracting the effect of convulsion-producing drugs. They are used to calm patients before childbirth or surgery. Restlessness in invalids, profound grief in adults, and overexcitement in children can be controlled by medically supervised sedation. Because many sedatives are habit-forming, they should be used with caution.

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv),
1. Calming; quieting.
2. A drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to the organ or system on which specific action is exerted; for example, cardiac, cerebral, nervous, respiratory, spinal.
[L. sedativus; see sedation]

sedative

/sed·a·tive/ (sed´ah-tiv)
1. allaying irritability and excitement.
2. a drug that so acts.

sedative

(sĕd′ə-tĭv)
adj.
Having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect; reducing or relieving anxiety, stress, irritability, or excitement.
n.
An agent or a drug having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect.

sedative

[sed′ətiv]
Etymology: L, sedatio, soothing
1 adj, pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that has a calming effect.
2 n, an agent that decreases functional activity, diminishes irritability, and allays excitement. Some sedatives have a general effect on all organs; others principally affect the activities of the heart, stomach, intestines, nerve trunks, respiratory system, or vasomotor system. See also sedative-hypnotic.

sedative

Herbal medicine
noun Nervine, see there.
 
Pharmacology
Any agent that acts on the CNS to attenuate responses to stimuli.
 
Activities of sedatives
Anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant.
 
Adverse effects
Ataxia, loss of inhibitions, cardiac and respiratory depression, mental and physical dependence and/or tolerance.
 
Examples
Amobarbital, butabarbital, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, ethchlorvynol, flurazepam, meprobamate, methyprylon, nordiazepam, pentobarbital, trichlorethanol.

Psychiatry adjective
Calming.

sedative

adjective Calming noun Pharmacology Any agent that acts on the CNS to attenuate responses to stimuli Activities Anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant Adverse effects Ataxia, loss of inhibitions, cardiac and respiratory depression, psychologic and physical dependence, tolerance Examples Amobarbital, butabarbital, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, ethchlorvynol, flurazepam, meprobamate, methyprylon, nordiazepam, pentobarbital, trichlorethanol

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv)
1. Calming; quieting.
2. A drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to the organ or system on which specific action is exerted, e.g., cardiac, cerebral, nervous, respiratory, spinal.

Sedative

Medicine that has a calming effect and may be used to treat nervousness or restlessness.

sedative,

n a substance that reduces excitability and calms the nervous system.

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv)
1. Calming; quieting.
2. Drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to organ or system on which specific action is exerted.

sedative (sed´ətiv),

n 1. production of sedation. A drug that can produce sedation.
2. a drug that produces cortical depression of varying degrees.
3. a remedy that allays excitement and slows down the basal metabolic rate without impairing the cerebral cortex.
sedative-hypnotic,
n a drug that reversibly depresses the activity of the central nervous system, used mainly to induce sleep and allay anxiety.

sedative

1. allaying irritabiliy and excitement.
2. an agent that calms nervousness, irritability and excitement. In general, sedatives depress the central nervous system and tend to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. They may be classified, according to the organ most affected, as cardiac, gastric, etc.
The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help an animal go to sleep, but it does not 'put it to sleep', a dangerous lay euphemism for euthanasia. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics. A drug may act as a sedative in small amounts and as a hypnotic in large amounts.
The barbiturates such as phenobarbital are the best-known sedatives. They are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives are the bromides, paraldehyde and chloral hydrate.