nitazoxanide

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nitazoxanide

(nit-a-zox-a-nide) ,

Alinia

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antiprotozoals
Pharmacologic: benzamides
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Treatment of diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.Not effective for C. Parvum diarrhea in HIV-infected patients.

Action

Interferes with electron transfer reaction necessary for anaerobic energy metabolism of offending organisms.

Therapeutic effects

Antiprotozoal action resulting in decreased diarrhea.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly converted to tizoxanide which is the active metabolite; tizoxanide is further metabolized.
Distribution: Unknown.
Protein Binding: >99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Tizoxanide—excreted in urine, bile and feces; inactive metabolites excreted in urine, bile and feces.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknown†1–4 hr12 hr
†Onset of antidiarrheal activity is 24–48 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatic and/or renal impairment; Diabetics (contains 1.48 g sucrose/5 mL); Children <1 pregnancy or lactation (safety not established).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • dizziness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • yellow eye discoloration

Gastrointestinal

  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting

Genitourinary

  • discolored urine

Dermatologic

  • pruritus
  • sweating

Miscellaneous

  • fever

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May interact with other highly protein-bound drugs by competing for binding sites.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults and children ≥ 12 yr) 500 mg every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 4–11 yr) 200 mg (10 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 1–4 yr) 100 mg (5 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.

Availability

Tablets: 500 mg
Oral suspensionstrawberry: 100 mg/5 mL in 60 mL bottle

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and during therapy.
  • Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Diarrhea (Indications)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administer with food. Keep container tightly closed and shake well before each administration. Suspension may be stored at room temperature for 7 days; discard unused portion.
    • Pedi: Tablets contain more than pediatric dose; use solution for patients ≤12 years.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Explain to parents administration of medication and monitoring of condition.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Resolution of symptoms: no watery stools, no more than 2 soft stools within the past 24 hr and no unformed stools within the past 48 hr.

nitazoxanide

an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia.

nitazoxanide

A synthetic salicylamide derivative and antiprotozoal that is active against Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia infection, and which appears to also have activity against hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

nitazoxanide

A thiazolide anti-infective drug used to treat diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Blastocystis hominis , Clostridium difficile and rotavirus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Contract awarded for Improvement partial housing units, district of toza, district of nata, cocle province.
27) Sakuma Hirayoshi, Biruma Ni Kurashi Shite: Toza Sareta Kuni No Hitobito To Seikatu [Living in Burma: People and their lives in a closed country] (Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1994), p.
Klinik belirtiler toza maruziyetten 4-6 saat sonra baslayan ates, oksuruk ve dispnedir.
Se exceptuan igualmente palabras y frases que no son representativas para el analisis, aunque muestren fenomenos de interes: terminos en lengua extranjera, aun cuando sean adaptados al espanol; (6) indigenismos, aunque tambien adaptados; (7) titulos de obras; toponimos; (8) y palabras para las que el fondo lexico patrimonial ofrece alternativas: toza (vi: 11): 'tocon de un arbol', sinonimo y al mismo tiempo paronimo de troza, 'tronco aserrado'.
Etrafina bakmlrken koselerden birinde gozume toza topraga bulanmis bir eski org ilisti; birden bire gonlumde tatli ve mahzun bir ihtizaz uyandi.
Serb Toza Saburic, former coach of Anorthosis Famagusta, was appointed in his place.
The struggling club's worst start to a season in 40 years has been accompanied by violent crowd protests, with Serb coach Toza Sapuric sacked three weeks ago.
Kaja Nebojsa Glogovac Tijana Aha Sofrenovic Turca Ivan Jevtovic Zozi Katarina Zutic Zuba Nikola Kojo Seka Sonja Kolacaric Toza Dragan Bjelogrlic Zuka Irfan Mensur Siske Nikola Duricko Lokator Nikola Pejakovic Bolid Boris Milivojevic Deki Nebojsa Ilic (Serbian dialogue)
Ah makambo ya somo toza komona kati ya mokili oyo [.
While Merson turned to a counsellor to lift him from the pits of despair, Sasa's dad Toza and mum Raemila, who moved to England with him, have been his emotional crutch.
The pastorela shepherdess is all too human; she is a toza (girl) or vilana.