tongue

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tongue

 [tung]
a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing, and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue. The condition of the tongue can sometimes be a guide to the general condition of the body. glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) can accompany anemia, scarlet fever, nutritional deficiencies, and most general infections. Sometimes it is part of an adverse reaction to medication. One form of glossitis causes a smooth tongue, with a red, glazed appearance. A coated or furry tongue may be present in a variety of illnesses, but does not necessarily indicate illness. A dry tongue sometimes indicates insufficiency of fluids in the body, or it may result from fever. When the tongue is extremely dry and has a leathery appearance, the cause may be uremia.
The tongue, showing principal structures. From Dorland's, 2000.
bifid tongue a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
black tongue (black hairy tongue) hairy tongue in which the hypertrophied filiform papillae are brown or black; called also lingua nigra, melanoglossia, and nigrities linguae.
cleft tongue bifid tongue.
coated tongue one covered with a white or yellow layer of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, or other material.
fissured tongue (furrowed tongue) a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
geographic tongue a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
hairy tongue a benign condition of the tongue characterized by hypertrophy of the filiform papillae that gives the dorsum of the tongue a furry appearance. The color of the elongated papillae varies from yellowish white to brown or black, depending upon staining by substances such as tobacco, foods, or drugs.
raspberry tongue a diffusely reddened and swollen, uncoated tongue, as seen several days after the onset of the rash in scarlet fever.
scrotal tongue fissured tongue.
strawberry tongue, red raspberry t.
strawberry tongue, white the white-coated tongue with prominent red papillae characteristic of the early stage of scarlet fever; the coating desquamates, leaving a beefy red (raspberry) tongue.

tongue

(tŭng), [TA]
1. A mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane, occupying the cavity of the mouth and forming part of its floor, constituting also by its posterior portion the anterior wall of the pharynx. It bears taste buds and assists in mastication, deglutition, and articulation of speech. Synonym(s): glossa, lingua (1)
2. A tonguelike structure. Synonym(s): lingua (2)
[A.S. tunge]

tongue

(tung) the movable muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it is the chief organ of taste, and aids in mastication, swallowing, and speech.
Enlarge picture
The tongue, showing principal structures.

bifid tongue  one with an anterior lengthwise cleft.
black tongue , black hairy tongue hairy tongue in which the papillae are brown or black.
cleft tongue  bifid t.
coated tongue  one covered with a whitish or yellowish layer consisting of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, etc.
fissured tongue , furrowed tongue a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline; it is sometimes a familial condition.
geographic tongue  benign migratory glossitis.
hairy tongue  one with the papillae elongated and hairlike.
raspberry tongue  a red, uncoated tongue, with elevated papillae, as seen a few days after the onset of the rash in scarlet fever.
red strawberry tongue  raspberry t..
scrotal tongue  fissured t.
white strawberry tongue  the white-coated tongue with prominent red papillae characteristic of the early stage of scarlet fever.

tongue

(tŭng)
n.
a. The fleshy, movable, muscular organ, attached in most vertebrates to the floor of the mouth, that is the principal organ of taste, an aid in chewing and swallowing, and, in humans, an important organ of speech.
b. An analogous organ or part in invertebrate animals, as in certain insects or mollusks.

tongue

[tung]
Etymology: AS, tunge
the principal organ of the sense of taste that also assists in the mastication and deglutition of food. It is located in the floor of the mouth within the curve of the mandible. Its root is connected to the hyoid bone posteriorly. It is also connected to the epiglottis, soft palate, and pharynx. The apex of the tongue rests anteriorly against the lingual surfaces of the lower incisors. The mucous membrane connecting the tongue to the mandible reflects over the floor of the mouth to the lingual surface of the gingiva and in the midline of the floor is raised into a vertical fold. The dorsum of the tongue is divided into symmetric halves by a median sulcus, which ends posteriorly in the foramen cecum. A shallow sulcus terminalis runs from this foramen laterally and forward on either side to the margin of the organ. From the sulcus the anterior two thirds of the tongue are covered with papillae. The posterior third is smoother and contains numerous mucous glands and lymph follicles. The use of the tongue as an organ of speech is not anatomical but a secondary acquired characteristic. Also called glossa, lingua.
enlarge picture
Tongue
Anatomy A complex, highly mobile muscular organ anchored in the floor of the mouth. It is covered by a mucosa invested with tastebuds and is the main organ of taste. It is central to chewing and swallowing and speech formation
Vox populi In the US and in English speaking countries, sticking out one’s tongue is often interpreted as a sign of derision

tongue

lingua Anatomy A complex, highly mobile muscular organ anchored in the floor of the mouth, which is central to speaking, chewing, swallowing, is covered by a mucosae invested with tastebuds, is the main organ of taste, assists in forming speech sounds and, when used indisciminately, a major source of interpersonal problems. See Black hairy tongue, Coated tongue, Flycatcher tongue, Geographic tongue, Golden tongue, Hairy tongue, Liver tongue, Magenta tongue, Raspberry tongue, Scrotal tongue, Smart tongue, Strawberry tongue, White strawberry tongue.

tongue

(tŭng) [TA]
1. A mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane, occupying the cavity of the mouth and forming part of its floor, constituting also by its posterior portion the anterior wall of the pharynx. It bears the organ of taste, assists in mastication and deglutition, and is the principal instrument of articulate speech.
Synonym(s): lingua (1) [TA] , glossa.
2. A tonguelike structure.
Synonym(s): lingua (2) [TA] .
[A.S. tunge]

tongue

(tung)
Enlarge picture
SURFACE OF TONGUE
A freely movable muscular organ that lies partly in the floor of the mouth and partly in the pharynx. It is the organ of taste and contributes also to chewing, swallowing, and speech. Synonym: lingua See: illustration

Anatomy

The tongue consists of a body and root and is attached by muscles to the hyoid bone below, the mandible in front, the styloid process behind, and the palate above, and by mucous membrane to the floor of the mouth, the lateral walls of the pharynx, and the epiglottis. A median fold (frenulum linguae) connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth. The surface of the tongue bears numerous papillae of three types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate (or vallate). Taste buds are present on the surfaces of many of the papillae, esp. the vallate papillae. Mucous and serous glands (lingual glands) are present; their ducts open on the surface. The lingual tonsils are lymphatic tissue on the base of the tongue. A median fibrous septum extends the entire length of the tongue.

Arteries: The lingual, exterior maxillary, and ascending pharyngeal arteries supply blood to the tongue. Muscles: Extrinsic muscles include genioglossus, hypoglossus, and styloglossus; intrinsic muscles consist of four groups: superior, inferior, transverse, and vertical lingualis muscles. The hypoglossal nerves are motor to the tongue; the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves are sensory for taste. Nerves: Lingual nerve (containing fibers from trigeminal and facial nerves), glossopharyngeal, vagus, and hypoglossal.

bifid tongue

A tongue with a cleft at its anterior end. Synonym: cleft tongue; forked tongue

black hairy tongue

Elongation and discoloration (brown, black or white) of the filiform papillae found on the dorsal, middle to posterior third of the tongue. It is associated with alcohol, smoking, toothpaste and mouthwash containing hydrogen peroxide, and liquid aniacids.

burning tongue

Burning mouth syndrome.

cleft tongue

Bifid tongue.

coated tongue

A tongue covered with a layer of whitish or yellowish material consisting of desquamated epithelium, bacteria, or food debris. The significance of this is difficult to interpret. It may mean only that the patient slept with the mouth open or has not eaten because of loss of appetite. If darkly coated, it may indicate a fungus infection.

dry tongue

A tongue that is dry and shriveled, usually indicative of dehydration. It may also be the result of mouth breathing.

fern-leaf tongue

A tongue possessing a prominent central furrow and lateral branches.

filmy tongue

A tongue possessing symmetrical whitish patches.

fissured tongue

Scrotal tongue.

forked tongue

Bifid tongue.

furred tongue

A coated tongue on which the surface epithelium appears as a coat of white fur. It is seen in nearly all fevers. Unilateral furring may result from disturbed innervation, as in conditions affecting the second and third branches of the fifth nerve. It has been noted in neuralgia of those branches and in fractures of the skull involving the foramen rotundum. Yellow fur indicates jaundice.
Enlarge picture
GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE

geographic tongue

A tongue with white raised areas, normal epithelium, and atrophic regions. This condition is also known as benign migratory glossitis.
See: illustration

hairy tongue

A tongue covered with hairlike papillae entangled with threads produced by the fungi Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans. This condition is usually seen as the result of antibiotic therapy that inhibits growth of bacteria normally present in the mouth, permitting overgrowth of fungi. Synonym: glossotrichia; lingua nigra

magenta tongue

A physical finding in patients with riboflavin deficiency.

parrot tongue

A dry shriveled tongue seen in typhus.

raspberry tongue

Strawberry tongue.

Sandwith bald tongue

See: Sandwith bald tongue

scrotal tongue

A furrowed and rugated tongue, resembling the skin of the scrotum.
Synonym: fissured tongue

smoker's tongue

Leukoplakia.

smooth tongue

A tongue with atrophic papillae. It is characteristic of many conditions, such as anemia and malnutrition.

split tongue

A cleft or bifid tongue resulting from developmental arrest.

strawberry tongue

A tongue that first has a white coat except at the tip and along the edges, with enlarged papillae standing out distinctly against the white surface. Later the white coat disappears, leaving a bright red surface. This is characteristic of scarlet fever. Synonym: raspberry tongue

trifid tongue

A tongue in which the anterior end is divided into three parts.

trombone tongue

The rapid involuntary movement of the tongue in and out.

tongue

The muscular, mucous membrane-covered, highly flexible organ that is attached to the lower jaw (mandible) and the HYOID BONE in the neck, and forms part of the floor of the mouth. The mucous membrane contains numerous small projections called papillae. On the edges and base of the tongue are many special nerve endings subserving taste and called taste buds.

tongue

a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth in most higher vertebrates that carries taste buds and manipulates food. It may act as a tactile or prehensile organ in some species.

tongue

(tŭng) [TA]
Mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane, occupying cavity of mouth and forming part of its floor, constituting also by its posterior portion anterior wall of pharynx; bears taste buds and assists in mastication, deglutition, and articulation of speech.
Synonym(s): lingua.
[A.S. tunge]

tongue

a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue.

tongue abscess
as well as true abscesses there are pseudoabscesses, common in companion birds, which are accumulations of inspissated, keratinized, epithelial debris, caused usually by a nutritional deficiency of vitamin A.
bifid tongue
a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
bird tongue
see bird tongue.
black tongue
cleft tongue
bifid tongue.
coated tongue
one covered with a whitish or yellowish layer consisting of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, etc.
tongue cyst
see thyroglossal cyst.
tongue deformity
the tongue may be shrunken because of prior inflammation, the tip may have been torn off, e.g. in lambs by predators. There is difficulty in prehending food and in managing in the mouth so that saliva and ruminal juices drool down the chin staining skin. Called tobacco chewers.
tongue edema
caused by local obstruction to venous blood flow, most dramatically displayed in a fetus presented anteriorly but delayed in parturition because of incompatibility in size between it and the birth canal, or bee or other hymenoptera sting.
tongue frenulum
see lingual frenulum.
furrowed tongue
a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
geographic tongue
a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
hairy tongue
one with the papillae elongated and hairlike.
tongue hypertrophy
an occasional congenital anomaly in pigs.
tongue inflammation
inherited smooth tongue
see smooth tongue.
lolling tongue
one that protrudes from the mouth, usually to one side. Seen in some short-nosed dogs and as a vice in horses.
tongue lyssa
see lyssa (2).
tongue paralysis
tongue protrusion
caused by paralysis (hypoglossal nerve dysfunction), Phalaris spp. poisoning, swelling, e.g. edema, laceration.
tongue rolling
a vice in housed cattle. The animal rolls its tongue around in its half-opened mouth and may partially swallow it.
scrotal tongue
fissured tongue.
tongue vice
see tongue rolling (above).
wooden tongue
tongue worm
see linguatulaserrata.

Patient discussion about tongue

Q. What is the treatment for tongue cancer? My Father in Law is 65 and has just been diagnosed with tongue cancer. What treatment will he be undergoing? What are his survival rates?

A. I had tongue cancer which sread to my lymph nodes on my neck. I underwent surgery and now I only have half of my tongue. But thanks to the surgeon Dr Justin Bergman (TRINTAS HOSPITAl Elizabeth NJ)I can speak enough to make me understand.I also got 9 weeks radiation after the operation.The bad thing is that recently after a Pet Scan I got the bad news that I have a cancerous tumor in my left lung on the same side were the tongue cancer was

Q. What is Tongue cancer? I heard that smoking can cause tongue cancer. Is this true and what is tongue cancer?

A. Cancer of the tongue is a malignant tumor that begins as a small lump, a firm white patch, or a sore (ulcer) on the tongue. If untreated, the tumor may spread throughout the tongue to the floor of the mouth and to the gum (jaws). As a tumor grows, it becomes more life threatening by spreading (metastasizing) to lymph nodes in the neck and later to the rest of the body. The general term for this type of cancer is cancer of the oral cavity.

Hope this help.

http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/content/sha_canctg_crs.htm

Q. What are the symptoms of tongue cancer? I have a white patch on my tongue for quite a while. I tried scratching it off but it starts bleeding. Is it cancer?

A. The symptoms of tongue cancer may include:
A red or white patch on the tongue, that will not go away
A sore throat that does not go away
A sore spot on the tongue that does not go away
Pain when swallowing
Numbness in the mouth that will not go away
Unexplained bleeding from the tongue (that is, not caused by biting your tongue or other injury)
Pain in the ear (rare)
However, don't be alarmed as these symptoms may be due to a less serious medical condition. But it is important to check symptoms with your GP just to make sure.

More discussions about tongue
References in periodicals archive ?
Speaking in Toungues, Andrew Bovell; dir: Laura Gordon.
Prior to that,however,a second round knockout of WBU lightwelterweight king Ricky Hatton's brother Matthew at Wembley Conference Centre in February, started toungues wagging about Keir and next week's title fight is seen as evidence of his growing reputation.
in the likenes of fiery toungues, lightyng upon the Apostles, to teache them, and to leade them to all trueth, gevyng them bothe the gifte of diverse languages, and also boldnes with fervent zeale, constantly to preache the Gospell unto all nacions, whereby we are brought out of darkenes and error, into the cleare light and true knowledge of thee, and of thy sonne Jesus Christ.