Paul, French anthropologist, 1830-1911. See: Topinard facial angle, Topinard line.
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The term criminology is derived from the Latin word crimen, translated as 'offence', and was introduced by the anthropologist Paul Topinard in 1889.
Following Paul Broca and Paul Topinard, the science of anthropology (anthropologie) was primarily a comparative anatomy of races, the 'natural history of mankind', the universal attempt to display all peoples around the world in a table of racial types.
Inspired by French enthusiasm (personally expressed by Paul Topinard himself in correspondence with the Portuguese group), (26) Cardoso and his friends created in 1887 a scientific society, Sociedade Carlos Ribeiro, and a scientific journal devoted to the natural and social sciences, Revista de Ciencias Naturais e Sociais, where Cardoso would later publish his Goan work.
Nelas usei os instrumentos contidos na Caixa antropometrica de Topinard, fabricada na casa Collin.
These, together with Topinard's tractatus of anthropology, would become the bibliography referred to in 'O Indigena de Satari', and among them were Herbert Hoppe Risley's first volume of Tribes and Castes of Bengal, which had recently been published, and an extensive critical review of Risley by Topinard himself.
In respect of the French, and Topinard in particular, the indifference might have been because of its Portuguese origin (and language), which relegated it to the periphery of French interests; or its conclusions, however honest, may have been considered feeble and inconclusive replications of the method.
This reached the point where one of the principal pupils of Broca, Paul Topinard, admitted in 1891 (Topinard 1891:4 & 39):
In this work Firmin relentlessly challenges the theorists of race, chief of all the Comte de Gobineau and such early anthropologists as Topinard and Clemence Royer.
In the years immediately following his death, a power struggle ensued between prominent factions of the organization, most notably Broca's protege and presumed successor Paul Topinard and Firmin's eventual sponsor Mortillet.
15) Unlike some members of the Societe--for example, Broca, Topinard, Mortillet, Letourneau, and Bordier, who were all associated with the Ecole d' Anthropologie in Paris (Hammond 1980)--Firmin did not have any affiliations with other anthropological institutions.
Virey, Histoire naturelle du genre humain (Paris, 1800) ; Paul Topinard, Elements d'anthropologie generale (Paris, 1885) ; Auguste Comte, Cours de philosophie positive (Paris : Bachelier, 1835) ; Charles Darwin, On Origin of Species (London : John Murray, 1859); Herbert Spencer, Classification des sciences (Paris: Librairie Germer Bailliere et Cie, 1872) ; Georg Hegel, Immanuel Kant, Jean-Franqois Champollion, Jacques Ampere, Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Breau, etc.