Thoracic vertebrae


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

vertebra

 [ver´tĕ-brah] (L.)
any of the separate segments comprising the spine (vertebral column). The vertebrae support the body and provide the protective bony corridor (the spinal or vertebral canal) through which the spinal cord passes. The 33 bones that make up the spine differ considerably in size and structure according to location. There are seven cervical (neck) vertebrae, 12 thoracic (high back), five lumbar (low back), five sacral (near the base of the spine), and four coccygeal (at the base). The five sacral vertebrae are fused to form the sacrum, and the four coccygeal vertebrae are fused to form the coccyx.



The weight-bearing portion of a typical vertebra is the vertebral body, the most forward portion. This is a cylindrical structure that is separated from the vertebral bodies above and below by disks of cartilage and fibrous tissue. These intervertebral disks act as cushions to absorb the mechanical shock of walking, running, and other activity. Sometimes rupture or herniation of a disk may occur (see herniated disk).

A semicircular arch of bone (the vertebral arch) protrudes from the back of each vertebral body, surrounding the spinal cord. Directly in its midline a bony projection, the spinous process, grows backward from the arch. The spinous process can be felt on the back as a hard knob. Three pairs of outgrowths project from the arch. One of these protrudes horizontally on each side and in the thorax connects with the ribs. The remaining two form joints with the vertebrae above and below. The joints permit the spine to bend flexibly. The vertebrae are held firmly in place by a series of strong ligaments.
Structure of vertebrae.
cervical vertebrae the upper seven vertebrae, constituting the skeleton of the neck.
coccygeal vertebrae the lowest segments of the vertebral column, comprising three to five rudimentary vertebrae that form the coccyx.
cranial vertebra the segments of the skull and facial bones, regarded by some as modified vertebrae.
vertebra denta´ta the second cervical vertebra, or axis.
dorsal vertebrae thoracic vertebrae.
false vertebrae those vertebrae that normally fuse with adjoining segments: the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae.
lumbar vertebrae the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.
vertebra mag´na the sacrum.
odontoid vertebra the second cervical vertebra, or axis.
vertebra pla´na a condition of spondylitis in which the body of the vertebra is reduced to a sclerotic disk.
sacral vertebrae the vertebrae just below the lumbar vertebrae, usually five in number and fused to form the sacrum.
thoracic vertebrae the twelve vertebrae between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, giving attachment to the ribs and forming part of the posterior wall of the thorax.
true vertebrae those segments of the vertebral column that normally remain unfused throughout life: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.

Thoracic vertebrae

The vertebrae in the chest region to which the ribs attach.

thoracic

pertaining to the chest. See also thoracolumbar.

thoracic asymmetry
if obviously distorted can mean that the flatter side has a collapsed lung. Not a helpful sign in cattle because of the normal asymmetry caused by the rumen.
thoracic breath sounds
breath sounds produced in the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli by the passage of air; contrast with tracheal breath sounds.
thoracic cage
the bony structure enclosing the thorax, consisting of the ribs, vertebral column and sternum.
thoracic cavity
see thorax; called also chest.
thoracic duct ligation
a surgical procedure used in the treatment of chylothorax where medical management is unsuccessful.
thoracic girdle
the incomplete ring of bones that support the thoracic limb, made up of the scapula, clavicle, coracoid and occasionally other elements. Mammals have no coracoids (except in monotremes) and nongrasping animals have no clavicle so that the girdle consists only of the scapula. Grasping or climbing animals have a clavicle. Birds have a complete bony girdle. Called also pectoral girdle.
thoracic inlet
the entrance of the chest between the two first ribs, the manubrium, and the first thoracic vertebra.
thoracic limb
forelimb.
thoracic pain
such as that caused by broken ribs, torn intercostal muscles, pleurisy can cause a grunt at the end of each inspiration.
thoracic peristaltic sounds
can be of assistance in diagnosing diaphragmatic hernia in a dog or cat but they occur commonly in normal horses and cattle.
thoracic positioner
a sterilizable M-shaped metal trough which can be laid on an operating table and an animal propped up in it for surgery.
thoracic respiration
the diaphragm and abdominal muscles remain immobilized and play little part in respiration, as in peritonitis with diaphragmatic hernia.
thoracic segmental spinal cord degeneration
characteristic lesion in the inherited disease merino degenerative axonopathy.
thoracic surgery
surgical procedures involving entrance into the chest cavity. Until techniques for endotracheal anesthesia were perfected, this type of surgery was extremely dangerous because of the possibility of lung collapse. By administering anesthesia under pressure through an endotracheal tube it is now possible to keep one or both lungs expanded, even when they are subjected to atmospheric pressure.
thoracic symmetry
lack of symmetry between the two sides, viewed from above, can suggest lung collapse or a space-occupying lesion on the smaller side; in ruminants the presence of the rumen always enhances the size of the left side.
thoracic tube
see chest tube.
thoracic vertebrae
the vertebrae between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, giving attachment to the ribs and forming part of the dorsal wall of the thorax.
thoracic wall
includes the ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae, the intercostal, superficial and deep, muscles, and the external respiratory muscles (transverse thoracic, rectus thoracic, serratus dorsalis and scalenus), and the costal pleura.
thoracic wall flap
a surgical approach to the thoracic cavity that combines an intercostal incision and sternotomy. It allows great exposure to structures of the cranial mediastinum and caudal cervical region.
thoracic wall wound
penetration through to the pleural cavity results in pneumothorax and collapse of the lung on that side.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chest computed tomography (CT) showed opacification in the left lower lobe, multiple bilateral upper lobe parenchymal nodules, a contiguous left paravertebral density along thoracic vertebrae 7-11, erosion of ribs 7 and 8, and partial height loss of corresponding thoracic vertebral bodies.
The fall left her with fractured cervical and thoracic vertebrae and broken ribs.
The acupuncture was performed along the medial border of the right scapula from the second to the eighth thoracic vertebrae.
Multiple fused thoracic vertebrae with at least one absent or markedly hypoplastic upper thoracic vertebra,
New here is her description of pathologies associated with horseback riding in caudal thoracic vertebrae (CTV), especially numbers 13-15, She examined never-ridden Exmoor ponies and presumed-ridden Iron Age horses from a Saka-Scythian kurgan in the Altai Mountains, and confirmed that vertebral pathologies can be a useful indicator of riding.
2 mm diameter model (CE marking in progress, with market launch planned in the coming months) for treating smaller vertebrae (notably thoracic vertebrae or other vertebrae in smaller patients).
Thoracic vertebrae are larger and stronger than cervical vertebrae and are much less flexible.