The external globus pallidus extends GABAergic neurons to the subthalamic
nuclei, a structure of the basal ganglia that utilizes the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamine to promote impulse transmission to the internal globus pallidus, which inhibits input to the thalamus and ultimately sends excitatory impulses back to the cortex (Bolam, Hanley, Booth, & Bevan, 2000).
This finding paved the way for the application of high frequency deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic
nucleus, a technique now used worldwide for advanced Parkinson's disease patients.
Changes in viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles induced by subthalamic
stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.
In DBS, wires are placed into the subthalamic
nucleus or the GPi and the patient implanted with a battery and electrodes.
They randomized 127 patients with early motor complications to best-practices drug therapy and 124 to that plus subthalamic
The sections include (1) middle frontal gyrus; (2) superior and middle temporal gyri; (3) inferior parietal lobule; (4) occipital cortex; (5) anterior cingulate gyrus; (6) amygdala; (7) hippocampus with dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex; (8) basal ganglia at the level of the anterior commissure with caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert; (9) thalamus with subthalamic
nucleus; (10) cerebellar cortex and dentate nucleus; (11) midbrain with substantia nigra; (12) pons with locus coeruleus; (13) and medulla with dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and hypoglossal nucleus.
Among patients stimulated in the subthalamic
nucleus, the score improved from 42.
The basal ganglia (BG) consists of six extensively interconnected nuclei, the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, amygdala (archistriatum) and subthalamic
All received the Libra DBS device, a constant-current subthalamic
Prospective randomized 1-year follow-up comparison of bilateral subthalamotomy versus bilateral subthalamic
stimulation and the combination of both in Parkinson's disease patients: a pilot study.
Patients with Parkinson's have reduced levels of a chemical - GABA - in part of the brain known as the subthalamic
Total number of neurons in the neostriatal, pallidal, subthalamic
, and substantia nigral nuclei of the rat basal ganglia: a stereological study using the Cavalieri and optical disector methods.