Streptococcus

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Streptococcus

 [strep″to-kok´us]
a genus of gram-positive, facultatively aerobic cocci (family Streptococcaceae) occurring in pairs or chains. It is separable into the pyogenic group, the viridans group, the enterococcus group, and the lactic group. The first group includes the beta-hemolytic human and animal pathogens; the second and third include alpha-hemolytic parasitic forms occurring as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and the intestinal tract, respectively; and the fourth is made up of saprophytic forms.
Streptococcus mu´tans a species implicated in dental caries.
Streptococcus pneumo´niae a small, slightly elongated, encapsulated coccus, one end of which is pointed or lance-shaped; the organisms commonly occur in pairs. This is the most common cause of lobar pneumonia, and it also causes serious forms of meningitis, septicemia, empyema, and peritonitis. There are some 80 serotypes distinguished by the polysaccharide hapten of the capsular substance. Called also pneumococcus.
Streptococcus pyo´genes a beta-hemolytic, toxigenic, pyogenic species that causes septic sore throat, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, puerperal fever, acute glomerulonephritis, and other conditions in humans.

streptococcus

 [strep″to-kok´us]
an organism of the genus Streptococcus. adj., adj streptococ´cal, streptococ´cic.
hemolytic streptococcus any streptococcus capable of hemolyzing erythrocytes, classified as α-hemolytic or viridans type, producing a zone of greenish discoloration much smaller than the clear zone produced by the β type about the colony on blood agar; and the β-hemolytic type, producing a clear zone of hemolysis immediately around the colony on blood agar. The β group contains the most virulent streptococci and is divided into serotype subgroups designated by letters (e.g., Group A).

Streptococcus

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs),
A genus of nonmotile (with few exceptions), non-spore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Lactobacillaceae) containing gram-positive, spheric or ovoid cells that occur in pairs or in short or long chains. Dextrorotatory lactic acid is the main product of carbohydrate fermentation. These organisms occur regularly in the mouth and intestines of humans and other animals, in dairy and other food products, and in fermenting plant juices. Some species are pathogenic. The type species is Streptococcus pyogenes.
[strepto- + G. kokkos, berry (coccus)]

strep·to·coc·cus

, pl.

strep·to·coc·ci

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs, -kok'sī),
A term used to refer to any member of the genus Streptococcus.

Streptococcus

/Strep·to·coc·cus/ (-kok´us) a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci occurring in pairs or chains; it is separable into the pyogenic group, the viridans group, the enterococcus group, and the lactic group. The first group includes the β-hemolytic human and animal pathogens, the second and third include α-hemolytic parasitic forms that are normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and the intestinal tract, respectively, and the fourth is made up of saprophytic forms associated with the souring of milk. Species include S. mu´tans, which may cause dental caries; S. pneumo´niae, an α-hemolytic species that is the most common cause of lobar pneumonia and also causes other serious, acute pyogenic disorders; S. pyo´genes, a β-hemolytic species that causes septic sore throat, scarlet fever, and rheumatic fever; and S. san´guinis, found in dental plaque, blood, and subacute bacterial endocarditis.

streptococcus

/strep·to·coc·cus/ (strep″to-kok´us) pl. streptococ´ci   an organism of the genus Streptococcus. streptococ´calstreptococ´cic
hemolytic streptococcus  any streptococcus capable of hemolyzing erythrocytes, classified as α-hemolytic type, producing a zone of greenish discoloration much smaller than the clear zone produced by the β-hemolytic type about the colony on blood agar; and the β-hemolytic type, producing a clear zone of hemolysis immediately around the colony on blood agar. The most virulent streptococci belong to the latter group. On immunological grounds, the β-hemolytic streptococci may be divided into groups A through T; most human pathogens belong to groups A through G.
nonhemolytic streptococcus  any streptococcus that does not cause a change in the medium when cultured on blood agar.
viridans streptococcus  any of a group of streptococci with no defined Lancefield group antigens but not Streptococcus pneumoniae, usually α-hemolytic; part of the normal flora of the respiratory tract but also causing dental caries, bacterial endocarditis, and other disorders in immunocompromised hosts.

streptococcus

(strĕp′tə-kŏk′əs)
n. pl. strepto·cocci (-kŏk′sī, -kŏk′ī)
Any of various round gram-positive bacteria of the genus Streptococcus that occur in pairs or chains and can cause various infections in humans, including strep throat, erysipelas, and scarlet fever.

strep·to·coc·cal (-kŏk′əl), strep·to·coc·cic (-kŏk′sĭk, -kŏk′ĭk) adj.

Streptococcus (Str.)

[strep′təkok′əs]
Etymology: Gk, streptos + kokkos, berry
a genus of nonmotile gram-positive cocci classified by serological types (Lancefield groups A through T), by hemolytic action (α, β, γ) when grown on blood agar, and by reaction to bacterial viruses (phage types 1 to 86). The various species occur in pairs, short chains, and chains. Some are facultative aerobes, and some are anaerobic. Some species also are hemolytic, and others are nonhemolytic. Many species cause disease in humans. Streptococcus faecalis, a penicillin-resistant group D enterococcus and normal inhabitant of the GI tract, may cause infection of the urinary tract or endocardium. S. pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae) causes a majority of the cases of bacterial pneumonia in the United States. S. pyogenes belongs to group A and may cause tonsillitis and respiratory, urinary, or skin infections. Some beta-hemolytic strains may lead to rheumatic fever or to glomerulonephritis. S. viridans, a member of the normal flora of the mouth, is the most common cause of bacterial endocarditis, especially when introduced into the bloodstream during dental procedures.-streptococcal, adj.

Strep·to·coc·cus

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs)
A genus of nonmotile, non-spore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-positive, spheric, or ovoid cells that occur in pairs or short or long chains. These organisms occur regularly in the mouth and intestines of humans and other animals, in dairy products and other foods, and in fermenting plant juices. Some species are pathogenic.
[strepto- + G. kokkos, berry (coccus)]

strep·to·coc·cus

, pl. streptococci (strep'tō-kok'ŭs,-sī)
A term used to refer to any member of the genus Streptococcus.

streptococcus

Any of a range of spherical or ovoid bacteria of the genus Streptococcus that occur in chains or in pairs. See also STEPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.

streptococcus

(pl. streptococci) 1 bacterial cocci that consist of chains of DIPLOCOCCI.

A genus of Gram-positive cocci (see GRAM'S STAIN such as Streptococcus mutans which can cause dental caries, Streptococcus pyogenes which can cause scarlet fever and streptococcal sore throat, and Streptococcus pneumoniae which can cause bacterial PNEUMONIA and was formerly called DIPLOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.

Streptococcus (plural, streptococci)

Any of several species of bacteria that are spherical in shape and form pairs or chains. Streptococci cause scarlet fever, tonsillitis, and pneumonia, and are often involved in lymphadenitis.

Streptococcus

genus of Gram-positive bacteria; group A beta-haemolytic streptococci cause >95% of human infections, e.g. cellulitis, impetigo, erysipelas, impetigo

Streptococcus (strep·tō kô·ks),

n a pathogenic bacterium often found in the mucosae of the mouth, nose, and throat and occasionally in skin, muscle, or heart tissue.

Strep·to·coc·cus

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs)
A genus of nonmotile non-spore-forming, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-positive, spheric or ovoid cells that occur regularly in mouth and intestines of humans and in dairy and other food products, and in fermenting plant juices.
[strepto- + G. kokkos, berry (coccus)]

Streptococcus

a genus of gram-positive, predominantly facultatively anaerobic cocci in the family Streptococcaceae occurring in pairs or chains. It is classifiable in several ways, none of them completely satisfactory in terms of species designation. Sherman's classification was based on tolerance tests. The system used most widely in veterinary bacteriology is Lancefield's grouping based on serological tests.
Another means of differentiating streptococci is on the basis of type of hemolysis produced around colonies grown on sheep blood agar. Alpha (α) is partial hemolysis or greening of the agar. Beta (β) hemolysis is seen as a clear zone and gamma (γ) is no hemolysis. Most of the pathogenic species are β hemolytic.

Streptococcus agalactiae
causes mastitis in cattle, goats and sheep, neonatal septicemia and urogenital infections in dogs and cats.
Streptococcus avium, Streptococcus durans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallinarum
reclassified in the genus enterococcus. Now called Enterococcus avium etc.
Streptococcus bovis
an important organism in the development of lactic acidosis in cattle following carbohydrate engorgement because of its capacity to ferment starch to lactic acid.
Streptococcus canis (canus)
isolated from cases of septicemia and adenitis in puppies and kittens.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae
causes mastitis in cows, ewes and goat does and polyarthritis in lambs.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
causes suppurative arthritis in piglets and abscesses in lymph nodes of the head and neck of horses. Also a cause of cervicitis in mares. Previously called S. equisimilis.
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi
causes strangles in horses.
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
occurs as a secondary infection in most species, particularly in horses in wounds, as a cause of cervicitis and a secondary infection associated with the viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. A cause of metritis and mastitis in cattle and septicemia in lambs, pigs and poultry. Previously called S. zooepidemicus.
Streptococcus equinus
causes opportunist infections in many species.
Streptococcus parauberis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus viridans
may cause mastitis in cows.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
formerly called Diplococcus pneumoniae; pneumococcus, causes pneumonia in humans, nonhuman primates, guinea pigs and calves and mastitis in cattle, and septicemia and arthritis in cats.
Streptococcus porcinus
Streptococcus pyogenes
a cause of lymphangitis in foals and an uncommon cause of bovine mastitis. An important pathogen of humans.
Streptococcus spp. biovar 1
causes disease in cultured finfish.
Streptococcus suis
has at least 35 capsular types many of which can cause streptococcal meningitis and arthritis in pigs. There is geographic variance in the importance of individual serotypes but types 1,2,3,4,7,8 and 11 are common pathogens. Infection with type 2 is particularly common and is a zoonosis as is type 14. Immunity to disease can be engendered by vaccination but is serotype specific.

Patient discussion about Streptococcus

Q. What Is Streptococcal Pneumonia? I have heard that I might have streptococcal pneumonia. What exactly does that mean?

A. Streptococcal pneumonia is a disease caused by the streptoccus bacteria. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in healthy people. You can learn more about bacterial pneumonia here-
http://www.5min.com/Video/Pneumonia---Viral-or-Bacterial--9552

Q. My friend think she has strep in her throat. What should she do. She doesn't want to take antibiotics. Her glands are swollen and she feels kinda out of it. Any more information or links would be greatly appreciated.

A. she should go to a Dr. that will take a look and a swab of the area. if he'll suspect a Strep. he'll give her antibiotics before getting results. it's important to follow antibiotic instructions ("10 days, 3 times a day"..).those infection can progress to other organs like the heart valves (very common) and cause chronic heart failure.

Q. 5 year old son diagnosed with streptococcus must I give him antibiotics? He is 5 years old and never received antibiotics before. He feels good and does not complain of any problem. The doctor said he should take antibiotics for 10 days. Is it mandatory?

A. Thanks a lot for your help, I will follow your advice.

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