stinkwort


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stinkwort

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Stinkwort is rapidly expanding its range in California.
Stinkwort is an erect, fall-flowering annual that can grow about 2.
In its native range and some introduced regions, stinkwort inhabits riparian woodlands, margins of tidal marshes, vernal pools and alluvial floodplains, although it has not yet invaded these wildland areas in California.
While stinkwort is native to the Mediterranean region, including Egypt and other areas of North Africa, this species has also been introduced to several European countries where it is not native.
Stinkwort can also cause contact allergic dermatitis in humans (Thong et al.
Although the initial mechanism and time of introduction of stinkwort in the state are not documented, many of the earliest collections were made in the south and east San Francisco Bay Area (Preston 1997).
Although it is still uncommon in many places where it is found, stinkwort has been reported in 36 of the 58 California counties (figs.
2: Chronological spread of stinkwort in California counties from 1984 to 2012.
In contrast, stinkwort begins to bolt in mid-May (moderate growth in figure 3A), grows most of its branches and leaves between June and September and flowers and produces seeds from September to December.
3: Life cycle of (A) stinkwort (Dittrichia graveolens), a late-season winter annual, compared to the life cycles of (B) wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.
have similar life history strategies, with only Russian-thistle and horseweed flowering within the same time frame as stinkwort.
The environmental and economic impacts of stinkwort in California have not been fully realized and are largely unknown.