People in the smart-card business have historically been in other high-tech businesses or a spin-off of a semiconductor manufacturer," says Cunningham.
AMMI's two smart-card production cells from Sempac SA of Switzerland produce molded, decorated, and electronically tested smart cards at a rate of 1500/hr.
Despite their current lack of experience, custom molders may still be able to carve out a place in the smart-card market.
They maintain that it is virtually impossible to take a smart-card chip apart and read the individual bits and bytes of the instructions built into and stored on the chip.
Within weeks of Bellcore's announcement that the new smart-card security is vulnerable, Shamir and Eli Biham of the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion) in Haifa found a way to modify the new approach to attack shared-key cryptosystems such as DES, which is used extensively in the financial world to protect electronic transactions.
Moreover, simple procedures such as repeating calculations and checking to make sure the same answer comes out each time can provide additional safeguards, though they often slow smart-card operation unacceptably.
And by the end of the decade, smart-card applications will include home banking, shopping and bill payments by telephone.
France is the technology leader, with smart-card applications that include mass transit, parking, retail, restaurants, vending machines and financial services.
By using a smart-card as a customer ID card, she points out; you have the flexibility and diversity to incorporate a U.
Because money loaded onto a smart-card at an ATM is a direct and immediate cash equivalent," Gustin explains, "there are no postings back to a debit or credit card issuer, and so enormous amounts are saved in administrative costs.
Because the ImagineCard solution is a packaged solution, we were able to focus our efforts on application development rather than on integration of separate smart-card technologies, which allowed us to quickly develop our smart-card-enabled demonstration systems for document registration and registered payment," said Dr.
Both ImagineCard Solutions will ship with the HP smart-card management system and HP hardware consisting of an HP 9000 D-Class server running HP-UX(1) 10.