look far more distressing to the observer than they are.
13) Parasomnias include nightmare disorder, sleep terror
disorder, and sleepwalking disorder.
Looking back, their parents may see similarities between the "blood-curdling screams" and dissociative state they remember from childhood sleep terrors
and the zombie-like condition of a sleepwalker.
Durand (2002) describes the use of scheduled wakings to treat sleep terrors
in three children with autism, aged between 3 and 7 years.
Unlike sleep terrors
, nightmares are remembered vividly the next morning and often involve themes such as fear, failing, danger, confusion, and being assaulted or chased.
are characterized by a sudden arousal with a loud scream and physical behavior of intense fear.
Non rapid eye movement sleep arousal parasomnias include confusional arousals, sleep terrors
(pavor nocturnus) and sleepwalking (somnambulism).
In all, the team observed that 37 per cent of the twin sets had sleep terrors
at 18 months, and that the problem disappeared a year later for about half of them.
Non-REM parasomnias, also termed "arousal disorders", such as Confusional Arousals, Sleep Terrors
, or Sleep Walking can be considered "primary sleep disorders" or "secondary" when associated with an identifiable cause such as a seizure disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal cardiac ischemia, or nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, for example.
Parasomnias, including sleepwalking, sleep terrors
, and confusional awakening, are common in young children.
Nocturnal panic is not related to sleep terrors
or nightmares, which occur during stage 4 sleep, the psychologist continued.
DATA WATCH Sleep Disorders in Children Age Group Early Late Preschool Elementary Elementary Sleep Problem (N=399) (N=286) (N=213) Sleep-disordered breathing 8% 13% 14% Excessive daytime sleepiness 11 17 21 Sleepwalking 9 19 19 Sleep terrors
39 22 20 Nocturnal bruxism 32 33 28 Two or more insomnia symptoms 21 13 23 Bedtime resistance 29 28 23 Age Group Middle School Sleep Problem (N=140) Sleep-disordered breathing 12% Excessive daytime sleepiness 20 Sleepwalking 17 Sleep terrors
13 Nocturnal bruxism 16 Two or more insomnia symptoms 18 Bedtime resistance 13 Source: J.