situs inversus

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Situs Inversus

 

Definition

Situs inversus is a condition in which the organs of the chest and abdomen are arranged in a perfect mirror image reversal of the normal positioning.

Description

Normal human development results in an asymmetrical arrangement of the organs within the chest and abdomen. Typically, the heart lies on the left side of the body (levocardia), the liver and spleen lie on the right, and the lung on the left has two lobes while the lung on the right has three lobes. This normal arrangement is known as situs solitus.
However, in about 1 in 8,500 people, the organs of the chest and abdomen are arranged in the exact opposite position: the heart is on the right (dextrocardia), as is the two-lobed lung, and the liver, spleen, and three-lobed lung are on the left. Yet because this arrangement, called situs inversus, is a perfect mirror image, the relationship between the organs is not changed, so functional problems rarely occur.

Causes and symptoms

Early in the normal development of an embryo, the tube-like structure that becomes the heart forms a loop toward the left, identifying the left/right axis along which the other organs should be positioned. Although the mechanism that causes the heart loop to go left is not fully understood, at least one gene has been identified to have a role in this process. However, it is thought that many factors may be involved in causing situs inversus. Rarely, situs inversus can run in families, but most often it is an isolated and accidental event occurring in an individual for the first time in the family.
Most people with situs inversus have no medical symptoms or complications resulting from the condition. Although only 3-5% of people with situs inversus have any type of functional heart defect, this is higher than the rate of heart defects in the general population, which is less than 1%.
It is estimated that about 25% of people with situs inversus have an underlying condition called primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). PCD, also known as Kartagener's syndrome, is characterized as situs inversus, chronic sinus infections, increased mucous secretions from the lungs, and increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. PCD is caused by a defect in the cilia that impairs their normal movements.

Diagnosis

Situs inversus should detected by a thorough physical examination. It is often picked up when a physician, using a stethoscope, hears otherwise normal heart sounds on the right side of the body instead of the left. To confirm the a suspected diagnosis of situs inversus, imaging studies such as MRI, CT, or ultrasound may be ordered, and a referral may be made to a cardiologist or internist for completeness. Imaging studies will also rule out the possibility of random arrangement of the organs, or heterotaxy, which has a much higher risk for serious medical complications.

Treatment

There is no treatment for situs inversus. In the unlikely case that a heart defect is present, it should be treated accordingly by a cardiologist.
Individuals who have situs inversus should be sure to inform all physicians involved in their medical care. In addition to preventing unnecessary confusion, this will reduce the risk of missing a crucial diagnosis that presents with location-specific symptoms (such as appendicitis).

Alternative treatment

Not applicable.

Prognosis

The prognosis for an individual with situs inversus is good, and in the absence of a heart defect or other underlying diagnosis, life expectancy is normal.

Prevention

There is no known method of preventing situs inversus.

Resources

Periodicals

Ainsworth, Claire. "Left Right and Wrong." New Scientist 66, no. 2243 (June 17, 2000): 40-45.
Janchar, T., Milzman, D., and Clement, M. "Situs Inversus: Emergency Evaluations of Atypical Presentations." American Journal of Emergency Medicine 18, no. 3 (May 2000): 349-50.
Travis, John. "Twirl Those Organs into Place." Science News 156, no. 8 (21 August 1999): 124-125.

Organizations

American Heart Association. National Center. 7272 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX 75231-4596. (214) 373-6300. (800) 242-8721. 〈inquire@heart.org〉.
NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Information Center. P.O. Box 30105. Bethesda, MD 20824-0105. (301) 592-8573.

Key terms

Cilia — Tiny hairlike projections on certain cells within the body; cilia produce lashing or whipping movements to direct or cause motion of substances or fluids within the body.
CT — A special technique that uses a computer to create a cross-sectional image of the body from a series of x rays.
Gene — A single unit of genetic information, providing the body with instruction for a specific biological task.
MRI — An imaging study that uses magnetic forces to produce an image of the body's internal structures.
Ultrasound — An imaging study that uses high-frequency sound waves to form a visual image of the body's internal structures.

situs

 [si´tus] (L.)
site or position.
situs inver´sus total or partial transposition of the body organs to the side opposite the normal.

si·tus in·ver·'sus

reversal of position or location.
Synonym(s): situs transversus

situs inversus

(ĭn-vûr′səs)
n.
A congenital condition in which internal organs are transposed through the sagittal plane so that the heart, for example, is on the right side of the body.

situs inversus

A term referring to the completely incorrect (mirror-image) sidedness of structures, where morphologically right-sided structures are present on the left side of the body and morphologically left-sided structures on the right.

si·tus in·ver·sus

(sī'tŭs in-vĕr'sŭs)
Reversal of position or location, referring particularly to left-right reversal of thoracic viscera.

situs inversus

An uncommon mirror-image reversal of the organs of the trunk. The heart points to the right, the LIVER and APPENDIX are on the left and the stomach and spleen on the right. Situs inversus is seldom of medical significance, but may confuse diagnosis until detected. See also DEXTROCARDIA.

situs

pl. situs [L.] site or position.

situs inversus
total or partial transposition of the body organs to the side opposite the normal.
situs solitus
normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs.
References in periodicals archive ?
Renal hypoplasia and situs inversus totalis Nephrology 2005;10:189-91.
A computed tomography scan showing a left hypoplasic kidney with situs inversus totalis.
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for a super super obese patient with situs inversus totalis.
Mathew Baillie first described situs inversus totalis in the early 20th century [1].
Situs inversus can be associated with right sided heart (dextrocardia) which is situs inversus totalis or can be associated with left sided heart (levocardia) which is situs inversus incompletes [1,8].
Although situs inversus totalis is not entirely rare, occurring once in every 6,000 to 8,000 births, according to the American Heart Association and other such organizations, Isabelle's condition is complicated by several severe conditions to her heart muscle.
In addition to the situs inversus totalis, a complete right-to-left reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs, and her heart being on the right side of her chest, a condition known as dextrocardia, Isabelle's heart has at least seven severe defects, including: transposition of the great arteries; the pulmonary stenosis that keeps her heart from pumping enough blood; and atrioventricular canal defect, a condition that includes her having a large hole in the center of her heart.