The cladistic analysis shows two derived sister clades
within Goniopholididae that consist of European taxa.
Micropoltys may belong in the sister clade
to these two (which would be clade 62 in Scharff & Coddington 1997, fig.
Red symbols indicate pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus-specific probe results; black symbols indicate SYBR Green results; gray shading indicates sister clade
of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus for each virus segment.
The former examines the extent that sister clades
differ for average within-group morphological distance among individuals.
Because there is no single sister taxon to the melpomene-cydno clade (Brower 1994a), and because the color patterns exhibited in the sister clade
are widely varying, no information about the ancestral color pattern can be made by outgroup comparison.
This does not mean that key innovations are limited only to those clades that are imbalanced, since it is conceivable that two sister clades
may both derive different key innovations that contribute in different, but equally successful, ways to their diversity.
All other subgenera represent divergent groups displaying unique characters, but synapomorphies and symplesiomorphies among subgenera permit their grouping into separate sister clades
2007) compared species richness between clades feeding on living plants and their sister clades
with hosts other than living plants.
The phylogeny of 71 complete genomes (avian isolates) and 3 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences (human isolates) in Figure 2B comprises isolates chosen because they formed the European-Middle Eastern-African (EMA) clades and the Russian and Chinese sister clades
in a larger analysis of 759 influenza (H5N1) isolates from the locales and host range of all H5N1 sequences published since 1996.
In the Bayesian tree, the WNV isolates from North America formed a monophyletic group consisting of two sister clades
(denoted as clade 1 and 2).
In both rbcL and matK analyses two large sister clades
(1 and 2; Figs.
Move down to the next level on the tree (nearer the root) and recognize the junction of a pair of sister clades
, or the junction of a single population to a clade (in this case, south Tenerife joins the north Tenerife-La Palma clade).