Singh Index

Singh Index

A method of grading trabecular bone loss based on the assessment of five anatomic groups of trabeculae in the proximal end of the femur, which has been used to stratify the risk of femoral neck fracture in senile osteoporosis. It is little used in practice because of the poor intra- and inter-observer agreement and the lack of correlation with bone mineral density as measure by DEXA scans.
 
With early trabecular resorption, the principal compressive and principal tensile trabecular groups become accentuated; with increased resorption, the tensile trabeculae are decreased; progressive loss of trabeculae leads to disappearance of the outer portion of the principal tensile trabeculae opposite the greater trochanter; resorption of all trabecular groups except the bony trabeculae in the principal compressive group follows, although in severe osteoporosis even these latter trabeculae may be obliterated partially or completely.
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6 times as much variance as the Hofstedebased Kogut and Singh index.
Boyacigiller 1990; Shenkar 2001; Harzing 2003; Dow and Karunaratna 2006; Brewer 2007) have criticised the heavy reliance on the Kogut and Singh index, and have argued that a much broader conceptualisation of distance is required in international business research.
Dow and Karunaratna (2006) found that six of their psychic distance stimuli variables were highly significant predictors of trade flows; while the Kogut and Singh index was not a significant predictor.
While one of the contributions of this paper is to include a more comprehensive set of distance scales, the Kogut and Singh index may still represent an important component of psychic distance; and thus, it is critical that we include it in our models.
The addition of the Kogut and Singh index (Hof) in Model 2 is a statistically significant improvement ([DELTA]Chi Sq = 28.
001), and Model 4 confirms that this holds true even when the impact of the Kogut and Singh index (Hof) is already taken into account (Model 2 versus Model 4: [DELTA]Chi Sq=52.
Comparing Model 3 to Model 4 also demonstrates that once the broader range of distance variables are included in a model, adding the Kogut and Singh index does not increase the predictive ability of the model ([DELTA]Chi Sq=2.
Preoperative radiologic evaluation for osteoporotic bone using the Singh index was performed.
The criterion we used to define osteoporosis was patients with a Singh index of 1-3 (21 patients).