In Sweden, Finland, Russia, and South Africa, Sindbis
virus (SINV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an etiologic agent for outbreaks of rash and long-lasting polyarthritis (1).
Ross River (RRV), Getah (GETV), Sindbis
(SINV) and Tembusu (Bunyamwera) were also been reported from the mosquito from different geographical locations (18-21).
Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate antiviral and Th1/Th2 cytokine responses to sindbis
The proteins then assembled themselves into harmless balls that resembled particles of Sindbis
virus - a relative of chikungunya and a fellow member of the alphavirus genus, which also includes a number of insect-borne viruses capable of causing dangerous encephalitis in humans.
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North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (13,14), Highlands J virus from North America (15), Western equine encephalitis virus (16) and Sindbis
strain KOS) in HEL cells; vesicular stomatitis virus, Coxsackie virus B4, respiratory syncytial virus in HeLa cells; parainfluenza virus type 3, reovirus type 1, Sindbis
virus, Coxsackie B4 virus and Punta Toro virus in Vero cells; and HIV-1 ([III.
The result was not only an outbreak of cholera but also a breeding ground for malaria as well as West Nile and Sindbis
viruses added to the mix as a result of the increased mosquito population.
These plants were tested against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis
virus and poliovirus, at non toxic concentrations.
We suggest that there remains much unknown and unreported information regarding the disease course and pathophysiology of mosquito-borne alpha-viral arthropathies such as Mayaro, Chikungunya, O'Nyong, Ross River, Sindbis
, and Barmah Forest at this point.
Researchers found the insect, best known for spreading malaria, also carries an organism called Sindbis
that targets and kills malignant tissue.
356) described the use of the mosquito-borne Sindbis
virus to kill cancer cells in lab dishes and mice.