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A genus of biting gnats or midges, the black flies, humpbacked flies, or buffalo gnats in the dipteran family Simuliidae. The aquatic larvae require swift-flowing streams or highly oxygenated waters for their development, a critical epidemiologic factor in the role of these flies as disease vectors. In Central and South America, Mexico, and across central Africa, various species transmit Onchocerca volvulus, agent of human onchocerciasis.
[L. simulo, to simulate]
Simulium/Si·mu·li·um/ (sĭ-mu´le-um) a genus of biting gnats; some species are intermediate hosts of Onchocerca volvulus.
Any of various black flies of the genus Simulium, several species of which transmit the parasitic filarial worms that cause onchocerciasis.
a genus of insects in the family Simuliidae causing insect worry with livestock. Cutaneous lesions may include vesicles and wart-like papules, and edema and petechiation of thin-skinned, ventral areas. Poultry may be affected by anemia. The species also transmits a number of animal diseases including the viruses of vesicular stomatitis and eastern equine encephalomyelitis, the protozoa, Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus spp., and are intermediate parasites for some Onchocerca spp. Called also black fly, buffalo gnat.
There are a large number of species distinguished largely by their geographic distribution: Simulium arcticum, S. callidum, S. columbaczense, S. damnosum, S. erythrocephalum, S. indicum, S. metallicum, S. neavei, S. ochraceum, S. ornatum, S. pecuarum, S. rugglesi, S. venustum.