sample

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Related to Simple random sample: stratified random sample

sample

 
1. a representative part taken to typify the whole.
2. a subset of a population that is selected for inclusion in a research study.

sam·ple

(sam'pĕl),
1. A specimen of a whole entity small enough to involve no threat or damage to the whole; an aliquot.
2. A selected subset of a population; a sample may be random or nonrandom (haphazard), representative or nonrepresentative.
[M.E. ensample, fr. L. exemplum, example]

sample

Etymology: L, exemplum
(in research) a group or part of the whole that can be used to demonstrate characteristics of the whole. Kinds of samples include cluster, convenience, random, and stratified.

sam·ple

(sam'pĕl)
1. A specimen of a whole entity small enough to involve no threat or damage to the whole; an aliquot.
2. A selected subset of a population; a sample may be random (haphazard) or nonrandom, representative or nonrepresentative.
3. A piece or portion of a whole that will demonstrate the characteristics or qualities of that whole.
[M.E. ensample, fr. L. exemplum, example]

sample

any portion of a whole, such as a small part of a population, collected for examination.

sampling 

The selection of a group of subjects from a population. This is usually done for the purpose of experimentation. The part of the population selected is called the sample: it is usually considered to be representative of a given population. A good sample must be random, i.e. every possible member of that population has an equal chance of being selected. Otherwise, it is said to be biased. Sampling can extend either across geographical areas (spatial sampling) or over a period of time (temporal sampling).

sam·ple

(sam'pĕl)
1. Specimen of a whole entity small enough to involve no threat or damage to the whole; an aliquot.
2. Selected subset of a population; may be random or nonrandom (haphazard), representative or nonrepresentative.
[M.E. ensample, fr. L. exemplum, example]

sample,

n a selected part of a population that is taken to be representative of the whole population.
sample, random,
n a sample drawn by chance; a sample drawn in such a way that every item in the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample.
sample, stratified,
n a sample derived by dividing the population into a number of nonoverlapping classes or categories from which cases are selected at random, the number of cases selected from each category being proportional to the number therein.

sample

1. a specimen of fluid, blood or tissue collected for analysis on the assumption that it represents the composition of the whole.
2. for statistical purposes a small collection of individual units taken from the population which is under investigation on the assumption that they represent the characteristics of the entire population.

EPSEM sample
acronym for 'equal opportunity of selection method'.
grab sample
sample of greasy wool taken at random by a special machine from each bale on the sale floor. Buyers price the bale on the basis of the appearance of the grab sample and the objective measurements.
multi-stage random sample
with very large populations it may be desirable to arrange the data into groups on one criterion, e.g. address by area of postcode, and to select randomly from within this group, then select from within this sample to obtain randomly a representative number of specimens, such as dogs of each age group.
random sample
the selection from a population of the units which are to constitute the sample of that population is made in such a way that each unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Called also simple random sample.
simple random sample
see random sample (above).
stratified random sample
the data is arranged into subsets or strata based on the possession of certain characteristics which are common to the members of the subset. The selection of units to comprise the sample of the parent population is arranged so that the proportional representation of each subset in the final sample fits a prearranged schedule.
volunteer sample
sample donated by interested parties; a biased sample because it does not represent all sections of the population. Called also self-selection.
References in periodicals archive ?
Greater homogeneity of students within schools, as measured by higher ICC values, leads to larger design effects and thus the amount by which the sample needs to be inflated to achieve the same precision and power as a simple random sample.
The simple definition of a design effect is the ratio of the estimated population variance taking the complex design features into account over the estimated population variance based on the same sample and assuming a simple random sample.
This indicates that it is possible that P values based on the assumption of a simple random sample will indicate rejection of the null hypothesis erroneously (Type I error).
Ignoring the sampling weights of a sample that is not a simple random sample can lead to biased estimates and model mispecification (Pfeffermann, 1996; Rust & Rao, 1996), whereas the use of the sampling weights provides unbiased estimates.
In addition, analysis 2, the weighted simple random sample model, would needlessly advise that dollars be spent to target males, because they appear to have significantly lower AIDS knowledge scores than females.
Due to these issues, sample size in terms of number of clusters and items selected from each cluster should be greater than the sample size required for a simple random sample or stratified sample.
Because each item in a population has an equal probability of selection on a given draw, simple random samples are considered to be highly representative.
The sample-based approach is reliant on having individual state employment security agencies generate a file of new UI account registrations at the end of each calendar month and immediately forward these files to BLS, where they are compiled into a business birth sampling frame and a simple random sample of new business births selected each month.

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