The rmpA gene increases capsule production making the organism resistant to phagocytosis and the Siderophore
biosynthetic genes secrete greater amounts of siderophores
(Aerobactin and salmochelin) that mediate iron acquisition from the host making them more virulent.
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria make micronutrients such as phosphorus and zinc available for plant uptake, fix nitrogen, sequester iron for plant uptake by siderophores
, and also produce plant hormones such as auxins (Lucy et al.
In addition, another benefit of these rhizobacteria is the action as plant-growth promoters (PGPR) through various mechanisms such as phosphate solubilization, production of phytohormones, siderophores
, biocontrol of pathogens and pest insects (Carvalho et al.
In another, scientists rapidly identified and discovered new types of metal-binding molecules called siderophores
, made by bacterial cells.
Universal assay for the detection and determination of siderophores
Oxidation of phenolate siderophores
by the multicopper oxidase encoded by the Escherichia coli yacK gene.
tubiashii produces several potential virulence factors associated with its pathogenic capacity including extracellular metalloproteases and toxins such as hemolysins, cytotoxins, and siderophores
(Hasegawa et al.
Enhanced plant growth by siderophores
produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.
iron chelating siderophores
, fungal wall degrading enzyme Chitinase, ammonia and cyanide (Lovic et al.
synthesis is inhibited under high [Fe.
The selection of strains was based on the: phosphate solubilization index, production of siderophores
, and production of IAA.
In contrast, previous studies using polymers, such as alginate, demonstrated that among the growth-promoting rhizobacteria, the capacity to produce auxin hormones of the indole type or to produce siderophores
during three years of storage was not affected in Pseudomonas (Trivedi & Pandey 2008).