short bowel syndrome

(redirected from Short gut syndrome)
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short bowel syndrome

A complication of major small intestine resections (e.g., for ischaemia or inflammation), resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition. In children, necrotising enterocolitis is main cause of short bowel syndrome.

Clinical findings
Excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anaemia, diarrhoea, electrolyte imbalances, and increased oxalates (derived from bile salt detergents) that pass into the circulation, which may crystallise in renal tubules causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia and steatorrhoea. Up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated. If the patient survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, increased absorptive cells and increased small intestinal calibre; after stabilisation and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated as soon as possible to stimulate adaptation.

Indications for massive small intestinal resection
• Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhoea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves.
• Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus or Crohn’s disease.
 
Management
Essential amino acids, low-protein diet, middle-chain triglycerides, vitamins, minerals.

short bowel syndrome

Small intestinal insufficiency Surgery A complication of major small intestine resections–eg, for ischemia or inflammation, resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition; massive small intestinal resection may be required in
1. Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves;.
2. Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus, or Crohn's disease; in children, necrotizing enterocolitis is main cause of SBS; excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea, electrolyte imbalances, ↑ oxalates–derived from bile salt detergents that pass into the circulation, which may crystallize in renal tubules, causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia, steatorrhea; up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated; if the Pt survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, ↑ absorptive cells and ↑ in small intestinal caliber; after stabilization and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated ASAP to stimulate adaption Treatment High 'quality'–ie, essential amino acids, low protein diet, middle chain TGs, vitamins, minerals. See 'Second look' operation.

short bowel syndrome

A disorder caused by the necessary surgical removal of a segment of intestine. It features weight loss, diarrhoea, fatty stools (steatorrhoea), and deficiencies of sodium, potassium and trace elements (hyponatremia, and hypokalemia). Affected people must eat several small meals a day, of readily-absorbed, finely chopped or ground foods supplemented by vitamins and minerals.

Short bowel syndrome

A condition in which the bowel is not as long as normal, either because of surgery or because of a congenital defect. Because the bowel has less surface area to absorb nutrients, it can result in malabsorption syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
The illness known as short gut syndrome affects only one in 25,000 babies.
Five-year old Taylor Gross from Texas, who is waiting for a small bowel transplant because of Short Gut Syndrome and;
Their daughter, Isabella Bertolino, was born missing 85 percent of her intestinal tract, the result of a disease called Short Gut Syndrome.