Glyphosate is absorbed by the leaves and axes and inhibits the shikimate
pathway by blocking the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (Zablotowicz and Reddy, 2004), alkaloids, flavonoids, lignins and cyanogenic glycosides (Franz et al.
Shikimic acid, commonly known as its anionic form shikimate
, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
These compounds are derivatives of the shikimate
, pentose phosphate and Phenylpropanoid pathways in plants .
The herbicide disrupts plants' and bacteria's shikimate
pathway that produces essential amino acids such as tryptophan (precursor for serotonin) and phenylalanine.
Glyphosate kills weeds by interfering with production of aromatic amino acids, and shikimate
plays a key role in producing those amino acids.
Experts in plant genetics, biochemistry and chemical analysis teamed up to identify a key enzyme named caffeoyl shikimate
Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which affects the shikimate
metabolic pathway, thus preventing the formation of essential amino acids and secondary metabolites.
3-dehydroquinate production by oxidative fermentation and further conversion of 3-dehydroquinate to the intermediates in the shikimate
Recently, scientists at CSGID determined the structure of a crucial enzyme in the shikimate
pathway of Clostridium difficile, which is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in humans.
It is produced when sugars enter a plant's shikimate
pathway, which creates a link between the processing of sugars and the generation of aromatic compounds.
The biosynthesis of flavonoids in apple, as in other plant tissues, includes precursors from both the shikimate
and the acetate-malonate pathways via several enzymatic steps [22, 23].
The structural investigation of the shikimate
or chorismate enzymes are a part of a large-scale Biotechnology Division project to provide a generic description of carbon flow and energy utilization in chorismate metabolic pathways by measuring reaction properties, modeling the mechanisms of chemical transformations, characterizing enzyme structures, and mapping pathway control nodes involved in the biocatalytic conversion of glucose to aromatic hydrocarbons.