DNA sequencing

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DNA sequencing

n.
The determination of the sequence of nucleotides in a sample of DNA.

base-sequence analysis

A generally automated method for determining the order of nucleotide bases in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA).

DNA sequencing

The determination of the sequence of base pairs in a length of DNA.

DNA sequencing

determination of the order of NUCLEOTIDES in a DNA molecule or part thereof. A number of techniques is available to determine a DNA sequence, for example the chain-terminator DNA sequencing procedure (see DIDEOXYRIBONUCLEOTIDE). Generally such techniques rely on the power of polyacrylamide gels to resolve NUCLEIC ACID molecules that differ in length by only a single nucleotide. Ladders of DNA fragments are formed on the gels following ELECTROPHORESIS. Both manual and automated methods of sequencing are available.

DNA


DNA binding proteins
are of two general types, histone proteins which are part of the unit structure of chromosomes called nucleosomes and nonhistone proteins which are present in small amounts and include regulatory proteins.
chromosomal DNA
circular DNA
a DNA molecule that is a closed-ring structure, found in mitochondria, prokaryote chromosomes, plasmids, and certain viruses.
closed DNA complexes
the first of two kinetically distinct steps required for RNA polymerase to initiate transcription in which the RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds electrostatically to the promoter DNA.
DNA construct
a DNA molecule which has been inserted into a cloning vector.
copy DNA
a DNA copy of mRNA which contains only regulatory and coding sequences, i.e. introns have been removed. mRNA is copied into double-stranded DNA using reverse transcriptase; the cDNA can then be cloned and amplified and introduced into an expression vector (plasmid or phage) and its protein product produced in either bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells. Called also cDNA.
DNA deletion
DNA double helix
see double helix.
duplex DNA
double-stranded DNA.
end labeling DNA
methods for labeling DNA with radioisotopes or other detectable marker molecules at the ends using the terminal transferase 3′-labeling or polynucleotide kinase for 5′-labeling.
episomal DNA
that present in a cell as extra chromosomal; exemplified by plasmids of prokaryotic cells. See plasmid.
eukaryotic DNA
exogenous DNA
the DNA that has been introduced into a host by cloning.
DNA glycosylases
enzymes involved in the excision-repair mechanisms for DNA.
heteroduplex DNA
duplex DNA with each strand from a different origin.
DNA gyrase
see gyrase.
DNA library
a collection of cloned DNA molecules from a genome.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that seals nicks in the DNA helix, joins Okazaki fragments together during DNA replication and is essential in recombinant DNA technology for DNA cloning.
DNA microarray
an ordered set of thousands of different oligonucleotides immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface used for the detection of cognate nucleotide sequences such as the pattern of gene expression in a particular cell population by hybridization with fluorescently labeled cDNA prepared from total mRNA isolated from the cells.
mobile DNA
a sequence present in the variable locations on the chromosome. Called also jumping genes. See also retrotransposon and transposable genetic elements.
open DNA complex
a local opening of about 10 base pairs formed at the transcription initiation site following the electrostatic binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme to the promoter region.
DNA polymerase
of Escherichia coli; has three distinct enzymatic activities: (a) a 5′ to 3′ polymerase activity which, under the direction of a template DNA, catalyzes the addition of mononucleotide units, produced from deoxynucleoside 5′-triphosphates, to the 3′-hydroxyl terminus of a primer chain; (b) a 5′ to 3′ exonuclease active only on duplex DNA; (c) a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease primarily active on single-stranded DNA which can selectively remove mismatched terminal nucleotides, thus carrying out a proofreading function. Additionally it catalyzes both the pyrophosphorolysis of DNA, a reaction which is the reverse of polymerization, and pyrophosphate exchange which represents a repetitive sequence of nucleotide addition and pyrophosphorolysis.
DNA probe
see probe (2).
DNA repair
a series of enzymatic mechanisms whereby errors or damage to one of the two DNA strands are removed by excision and replaced by correct nucleotides using the undamaged strand as template. The mechanisms include removal of lesions of depurination and DNA glycosylases which recognize altered bases.
repeat DNA, repetitive DNA
includes (a) satellite DNA and so-called (b) interspersed repeated DNA sequences. The latter are interspread throughout the chromosomes in hundreds of thousands of individual copies, each about 300 nucleotides long; they are, unlike satellite DNA, transcribed.
satellite DNA
serially repeated DNA sequences of one or a few nucleotides with a repeat length of up to 250 nucleotides that are not transcribed and commonly located in the heterochromatin associated with the centrometric regions of chromosomes.
selfish DNA
a mobile DNA element that appears to have no function except to replicate itself. Part of junk DNA.
DNA sequencing
determining the order of nucleotides in DNA from which amino acid in a polypeptide chain can be predicted.
single-copy DNA
the fraction of DNA that contains most of the protein-coding genes and reassociates most slowly.
single-stranded DNA
produced when double-stranded DNA is denatured or found naturally in some viruses.
spacer DNA
single-copy DNA sequences which do not encode proteins or functional RNA molecules.
supercoiled DNA
the double helix is itself twisted.
superhelical DNA
a twisted structure formed by circular DNA molecules. See also supercoiled DNA (above).
DNA transcription
DNA translation
unique DNA
DNA sequences that occur only once in the haploid genome.
DNA viruses
contain a single molecule of DNA that is either double or single stranded. Parvoviruses and circoviruses are single stranded, hepadnaviruses are partially double stranded and all others are double stranded. DNA virus families are: Poxviridae, Asfarviridae,Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Hepadnaviridae.
Z-DNA
an alternative structural form of DNA which differs from the more commonly occurring B- and related A-form in that the helix is left handed compared with the right hand helixes of B- and A-forms. Z is for zig-zag. The functional significance of Z-DNA is unknown.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sanger and Maxam-Gilbert sequencing technologies were classified as the First Generation Sequencing Technology [10,16] who initiated the field of DNA sequencing with their publication in 1977.
DNAe's semiconductor DNA sequencing technology is already licensed to Thermo Fisher and is the core of the Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing systems as well as to Geneu, a company selling the world's first in-store DNA test for personalised skincare.
The number of patent filings in the field of sequencing technology showed a general increase between 2003 and 2011, with a slight fall-off since 2011 - likely due to the delayed impact of the global financial crisis.
Archer Targeted Sequencing technology is based on Anchored Multiplex PCR (AMP) and proprietary Archer Analysis Pipeline software.
KATHMANDU: Scientists announced Monday they had combined cutting-edge gene sequencing technology with Google Earth to accurately map the spread of typhoid in Kathmandu for the first time.
In the new research, scientists at the Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme in Vietnam and the Oxford University Clinical Research Units in Kathmandu, Nepal, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, combined DNA sequencing technology and GPS signalling, and mapped the data onto Google Earth.
Both double-blinded studies were performed by groups of collaborative research institutions with varying degrees of familiarity with the sequencing technology.
They will analyse the genome of five types of wheat using new DNA sequencing technology to generate tools to help breeders select traits such as high productivity for their crop.
San Diego, CA 7/22/08--Illumina has acquired Avantome, the developer of a long read-length sequencing technology, for $25 million in cash and contingent payments of up to $35 million.
454 Sequencing technology was used to analyze mutations in five exons of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene in tumor samples from 22 patients with lung cancer.
2) Studies of human genetic variation and the application of such information to individual health care, which will also require much cheaper sequencing technology.
Under the terms of the agreement, the license gives 454 Life Sciences the exclusive right to use this technology in whole genome analysis, while Pyrosequencing AB will retain the rights to its pyrophosphate- based sequencing technology for all applications not related to whole genome activities.