Selected pieces of wax-embedded spinal cord tissue from the sentinel animal
were extracted and postfixed in 2.
Local WNV surveillance networks collected and tested for WNV or antibodies specimens from human and veterinary patients, dead birds, captive sentinel animals
(mostly chickens), wild-caught birds, and mosquitoes.
On May 3, 2007, the first sentinel animal
in the program (4-year-old Holstein Friesian cow, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany) tested positive for BTV antibodies and genomes in a regional laboratory (Krefeld, Germany).
dagger]) Day 0 was defined as the day the sentinel animals
arrived at the farm in Nyakatonzi (Kasese District).
Carnivores such as dogs and foxes, which prey on rodents and eat their fresh carcasses, are valuable sentinel animals
for plague serosurveillance in disease-endemic foci, although their infections are usually asymptomatic (2,3).
Because bacteremia among hosts from Zielonka was frequent (range 12%-26%) and boars are quite abundant in Europe, they could be used as sentinel animals
for detecting A.
After each natural infection, sentinel animals
seroconverted, and serum scored positive in the cNP-ELISA within 2-4 weeks.
Use of sentinel animals
has been suggested as a cost-effective way to infer prevalence in host populations when direct estimation in such populations is difficult (13).
Virus isolations from sentinel animals
and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks.
These findings in turn raised questions about factors involved in human susceptibility, risks of pesticide exposure, efficacy of mosquito control, the value of sentinel animals
in surveillance, and the roles played by various species in virus transmission and amplification.
These data include reports of WNV-infected mosquitoes, sentinel animals
, dead birds, and ill humans and horses (5).
Captive sentinel animals
, compared to all other arbovirus surveillance systems, provide more precise data on the location and time in which virus transmission has occurred.