sensory neuron

(redirected from Sensory neurons)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Sensory neurons: Interneurons, Motor neurons

sen·so·ry neu·ron

a neuron conveying information originating from sensory receptors or nerve endings; an afferent neuron, may be a general or special sensory neuron.


(noo'ron?) [Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew]
Enlarge picture
A nerve cell, the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons function in the initiation and conduction of impulses. They transmit impulses to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses. Alternatively, a neuron may release neurohormones into the bloodstream. Synonym: nerve cell See: illustrationneuronal (noor''on-al), adjective

afferent neuron

A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or spinal cord.
Synonym: sensory neuron

association neuron


associative neuron

A neuron that mediates impulses between a sensory and a motor neuron.

bipolar neuron

1. A neuron that bears two processes.
2. A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from the rods and cones and transmits them to a ganglion neuron. See: retina for illus.

central neuron

A neuron confined entirely to the central nervous system.

commissural neuron

A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord.

efferent neuron

A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord.

gamma motor neuron

A small nerve originating in the anterior horns of the spinal cord that transmits impulses through type A gamma fibers to intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle for muscle control.

ganglion neuron

A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from bipolar neurons. Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve.
See: retina for illus.

internuncial neuron


lower motor neuron

A peripheral motor neuron that originates in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord and terminates in skeletal muscles. Lesions of these neurons produce flaccid paralysis of the muscles they innervate. Synonym: lower motoneuron

mirror neuron

Any of a group of neurons that become active both when an animal moves in a certain way and when the animal observes others performing the same action. Learning by simulation or imitation is thought to be a function of the system of mirror neurons in the brain.

motor neuron

A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion.

multipolar neuron

A neuron with one axon and many dendrites.

peripheral neuron

A neuron whose process constitutes a part of the peripheral nervous system (cranial, spinal, or autonomic nerves).

peripheral motor neuron

A motor neuron that transmits impulses to skeletal muscle. Synonym: peripheral motoneuron

postganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands).

preganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons.

sensory neuron

Afferent neuron.

serotonergic neuron

A nerve cell that uses serotonin as its neurotransmitter.

unipolar neuron

A neuron whose cell body bears one process.

upper motor neuron

A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found completely within the central nervous system that synapses with or regulates the actions of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Lesions of these neurons produce spastic paralysis in the muscles they innervate. Synonym: upper motoneuron

sensory neuron


sensory cell

a neuron that conducts impulses from the periphery of an organ to the CNS.
References in periodicals archive ?
Here, motor neurons, which control muscle movement, and sensory neurons, which relay sensory information such as pain, temperature and touch, connect with the spinal cord.
24, 26) We have shown that BDNF may cause downregulation of the chloride transporter KCC2 in a subpopulation of lamina I secondary sensory neurons in dorsal horn, which then causes a depolarizing shift in the anion reversal potential ([E.
To execute this leg extension, a muscle stretch receptor in the extensor muscle, which is stretched in response to the knee tap, sends a signal through a sensory neuron to the spinal cord.
Studies at the center have shown injury to sensory neurons, or presence of mutant versions of Navl.
Functional recovery following bulbectomy is rather thought to be mediated by the generation of direct connections between the olfactory sensory neurons and the forebrain (Wright and Harding, 1982; Slotnick et al, 2004).
The sensory neurons synapse on the alpha motor neurons within the spinal cord that innervate the muscle that was stretched.
of Florence, Italy) explains in her introduction, the 22 chapters of this book "have evolved around the concept that the first sensory synapse between the central terminals of primary sensory neurons and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord is plastic and modifiable" by neuronal and non-neuronal regulators, promising the identification of new targets for the treatment of chronic pain.
1] consisted of a mixture of sensory neurons and nerve ring interneurons, whilst [S.
Approximately 10 sensory neurons innervate each peg (Foelix & Muller-Vorholt 1983), and synaptic contacts exist between neurons within a sensillum (Gaffin & Brownell 1997a).
Sensory neurons, for example, carry messages from your eyes, ears and other sensory organs to your brain.
Collectively, these events profoundly affect the excitability and functional properties of spinal sensory neurons and ultimately affect evoked and resting sensibilities.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN) is a rare disorder of peripheral sensory neurons.