It covers the history of sport psychology, theories of human motivation, and aspects of exercise and theories of exercise promotion (in a new chapter); performance enhancement strategies like self-talk, enhancing concentration, mental imagery, goal setting, and promoting self-efficacy and sport self-confidence; and performance inhibition, including choking under pressure, self-handicapping
, procrastination, perfectionism, helplessness, disruptive personality factors, substance abuse, burnout, and sport injuries.
occurs when a person deliberately attempts to sabotage performing well on a task, with the goal of having an excuse (for example, running out of time) for less-than-perfect performance.
Both cognitive and behavioral effects have been measured during stereotype threat manipulation in various academic settings, resulting in decreased performance and self-handicapping
1995), competitive anxiety (Hassmen, Raglin & Lundqvist, 2004; Krane & Williams, 1992), and self-handicapping
(Kuczka & Treasure, 2005).
Their paper stated that those who were high fearing failure adopted strategies of self-worth protection such as self-handicapping
and withdrawal of effort to avoid the shame that accompanies failure.
involves the use of excuses given prior to a possible negative performance, such as a performance on an exam (Baumeister & Scher, 1988).
behaviors occur when employees are insecure about their ability to perform well and may be motivated by high social anxiety and fear of the future (Renn et al.
To investigate relationships between achievement goal variables and other academic outcome variables, students' GPA and responses to additional subscales from the PALS were collected, including academic self-efficacy and other academically related outcomes associated with maladaptive learning (such as self-handicapping
, avoiding novelty, and skepticism about school).
Drawing from the empirical literature on interpersonal processes in depression, they examine the operation of such processes as stress generation, negative feedback-seeking, excessive reassurance-seeking, interpersonal conflict avoidance, self-handicapping
, blame maintenance, and stable vulnerabilities.
Maladaptive behavioural dimensions are self-handicapping
Midgley and Urdan (2001) report that perceptions of a performance classroom goal structure can predict the use of self-handicapping
strategies, independent of students' personal goals.
The students' motivation was examined using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey in the following aspects: personal achievement goal orientations, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, academic efficacy, academic self-handicapping
strategies, and cultural dissonance between home and school.