sedative

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sedative

 [sed´ah-tiv]
1. allaying irritability, excitement, or nervousness.
2. an agent that does this. The usual mode of action is depression of the central nervous system, which tends to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. Sedatives are distinct from tranquilizers, which also have a calming effect but unlike sedatives usually do not suppress bodily reactions. Sedatives may be classified according to the organ most affected, such as cardiac, gastric, and so on. Called also calmative.



The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help a patient go to sleep, but it does not put him to sleep. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics (some drugs act as sedatives in small amounts and as hypnotics in large amounts). The barbiturates, such as phenobarbital, are the best known sedatives and are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives include paraldehyde and chloral hydrate. Sedatives are useful in the treatment of any condition in which rest and relaxation are important to recovery. Some sedatives are also useful in treatment of convulsive disorders or epilepsy and in counteracting the effect of convulsion-producing drugs. They are used to calm patients before childbirth or surgery. Restlessness in invalids, profound grief in adults, and overexcitement in children can be controlled by medically supervised sedation. Because many sedatives are habit-forming, they should be used with caution.

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv),
1. Calming; quieting.
2. A drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to the organ or system on which specific action is exerted; for example, cardiac, cerebral, nervous, respiratory, spinal.
[L. sedativus; see sedation]

sedative

/sed·a·tive/ (sed´ah-tiv)
1. allaying irritability and excitement.
2. a drug that so acts.

sedative

(sĕd′ə-tĭv)
adj.
Having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect; reducing or relieving anxiety, stress, irritability, or excitement.
n.
An agent or a drug having a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect.

sedative

[sed′ətiv]
Etymology: L, sedatio, soothing
1 adj, pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that has a calming effect.
2 n, an agent that decreases functional activity, diminishes irritability, and allays excitement. Some sedatives have a general effect on all organs; others principally affect the activities of the heart, stomach, intestines, nerve trunks, respiratory system, or vasomotor system. See also sedative-hypnotic.

sedative

Herbal medicine
noun Nervine, see there.
 
Pharmacology
Any agent that acts on the CNS to attenuate responses to stimuli.
 
Activities of sedatives
Anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant.
 
Adverse effects
Ataxia, loss of inhibitions, cardiac and respiratory depression, mental and physical dependence and/or tolerance.
 
Examples
Amobarbital, butabarbital, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, ethchlorvynol, flurazepam, meprobamate, methyprylon, nordiazepam, pentobarbital, trichlorethanol.

Psychiatry adjective
Calming.

sedative

adjective Calming noun Pharmacology Any agent that acts on the CNS to attenuate responses to stimuli Activities Anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant Adverse effects Ataxia, loss of inhibitions, cardiac and respiratory depression, psychologic and physical dependence, tolerance Examples Amobarbital, butabarbital, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, ethchlorvynol, flurazepam, meprobamate, methyprylon, nordiazepam, pentobarbital, trichlorethanol

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv)
1. Calming; quieting.
2. A drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to the organ or system on which specific action is exerted, e.g., cardiac, cerebral, nervous, respiratory, spinal.

Sedative

Medicine that has a calming effect and may be used to treat nervousness or restlessness.

sedative,

n a substance that reduces excitability and calms the nervous system.

sed·a·tive

(sed'ă-tiv)
1. Calming; quieting.
2. Drug that quiets nervous excitement; designated according to organ or system on which specific action is exerted.

sedative (sed´ətiv),

n 1. production of sedation. A drug that can produce sedation.
2. a drug that produces cortical depression of varying degrees.
3. a remedy that allays excitement and slows down the basal metabolic rate without impairing the cerebral cortex.
sedative-hypnotic,
n a drug that reversibly depresses the activity of the central nervous system, used mainly to induce sleep and allay anxiety.

sedative

1. allaying irritabiliy and excitement.
2. an agent that calms nervousness, irritability and excitement. In general, sedatives depress the central nervous system and tend to cause lassitude and reduced mental activity. They may be classified, according to the organ most affected, as cardiac, gastric, etc.
The degree of relaxation produced varies with the kind of sedative, the dose, the means of administration, and the mental state of the patient. By causing relaxation, a sedative may help an animal go to sleep, but it does not 'put it to sleep', a dangerous lay euphemism for euthanasia. Medicines that induce sleep are known as hypnotics. A drug may act as a sedative in small amounts and as a hypnotic in large amounts.
The barbiturates such as phenobarbital are the best-known sedatives. They are also widely used as hypnotics. Other effective sedatives are the bromides, paraldehyde and chloral hydrate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Oral Sedation - A sedative in liquid or pill form is administered to the patient, usually in the dental office.
In a pilot study conducted by the SPICE study group (18), the use of propofol or traditional sedatives was not associated with reduced early sedation depth.
But the latest agreement only amounts to a new sedative that could be administered during Thursday's session of the Cabinet -- if things go "right.
The Hamas government, meanwhile, has been cracking down on drug and sedative abuse on its turf.
The Los Angeles County Coroner said in a statement that propofol, a powerful anesthetic, and the sedative lorazepam were the primary drugs responsible for Jackson's death.
This study was designed to evaluate supposed psychopharmacological activity and more specifically the alleged sedative action of inhaled lavender essential oil.
The parents of Madeleine McCann were considering legal action yesterday against "hurtful" claims that they gave their four-year-old daughter - and her younger brother and sister - sedatives on the night she disappeared.
With the number of such tests expected to increase, the Horseracing Regulatory Authority has acted to discourage trainers from using sedatives to get their horses through them.
In this article we provide data on the most important harms associated with adolescent substance use for the following drugs: Ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, cough and cold medication (dextromethorphan), prescription opiates and stimulants, and "date rape" drugs, including sedatives and gamma hydroxybutarate (GHB).
Anytime your body is relaxed--as sedatives will do--pain will be lessened.
The inquest heard that a South African nurse, 59, was the last person to treat Mr Brown and it was accepted by police and Crown Prosecution Service she gave Mr Brown two unauthorised extra sedatives hours before he died.
Sedatives and alcohol relax the throat muscles and smoking inflames the tissue in the mouth and throat.